9th Class Biology: chapter 6 Enzymes Short Questions Answer
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The molecules at which enzymes act are called substrates.
Enzymes break starch and proteins to produce simple sugars and amine acids that are used by yeast for fermentation.
Proteases are used for the removal of protein stains from clothes.
Every enzyme works at its maximum rate at a specific temperature which is called optimum temperature for the enzyme.
Catabolism is a process in which larger and complex molecules break into simpler molecules with release of energy.
If organic cofactors are tightly bound to enzyme they are called prosthetic group.
When temperature is raised well above the optimum temperature, heat energy increases the vibrations of atoms of enzyme and the globular structure of enzyme is lost. This is known as denaturation of enzyme.
The non-protein molecules or ions required by enzymes for its activity is called co-factor.
The state in which all the active sites of the enzymes are occupied and any more substrate molecules do not find free active sites is called saturation of active site.
The minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction is called activation energy. Enzyme lower activation energy by following ways.
By altering the shape of the substrate.
By distrupting charge distribution.
According to this moder, both enzyme and substrate possess specific shapes that fit exactly into one another. This model explains enzyme specificity.
Following factors affect the rate of enzyme action.
Temperature, Substrate concentration and pH.
The temperature at which an enzyme works at its best is called optimum temperature. At low temperatures the enzyme is ineffective. When temperature is raised well above the optimum temperature, heat energy increases the vibrations of atoms of enzymes and the globular structure of enzyme is lost this is called denaturation of enzyme.
The small portion of enzyme molecule is directly involved in catalysis. This catalytic region is known as active site.
The set of all the biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms to carry out all life activities, is called metabolism, e.g. growth, reproduction, maintenance of structures and respond to the environments.
Importance of Metabolism: Metabolism is essentially related to the energy transfers. During metabolism, chemicals are transformed from one form to the other by enzymes because they act as biocatalysts and speed us and regulate the metabolic pathways.
According to this model, active site is not a rigid structure rather ist is molded into the required shape to perform its function.
Catabolism: Catabolism is a process in which larger and complex molecules and break into small and simple molecules with release of energy.
Anabolism: Anabolism is a type of metabolism in which small molecules combine with each other and make large and complex molecules.
The molecules which are formed as the result of enzymatic reaction are called product.
If enzyme molecules are available in a reaction, an increase in substrate concentration increases the rate of reaction. It the enzyme concentration is kept constant and the amount of substrate is increased, a pint is reached where any further increase in substrate does not increase the rate of reaction any more. When the active site of all enzmes are occupied any more substrate molecules do not find free active sites. This state is called saturation of active sites and reaction rate does not increase.
The catalyst which is used to speed up the biochemical reaction is called biocatalyst.
Cofactor: Some enzymes require non-protein molecules or ions called for activity this is called cofactor.
Enzyme: Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions and are not changed during the reaction.
Enzymes of glycolysis which work in cytoplasm belong intracellular, while pepsin enzyme working in stomach cavity are extracellular enzymes.
Thos chemical substance which reduce or slow down the catalytic action of enzyme are known as inhibitors.
German physiologist whinhelm kuhne first used the term enzyme.
The specificity of different enzymes is determined by the shape of their active sites. The active site possess specific geometric shapes that fit with specific substrates.
Following enzyme are act as coenzyme riboflavin, thiamine and folic acid.
Amylase catalyse the process of break down of starch, while lipase enzyme act on lipids.