9th Class Biology: chapter 4 Cells and Tissues Short Questions Answer
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Chromosome of eukaryotic consist on DNA only and float in cytoplasm near centre. The region is called nucleoid.
Filtrtion is a process by which small molecules are forced to move across semi-permeable membrane with the aid of hydrostatic pressure or blood pressure.
The process by which a solvent passes through a porous membranes in the direction opposite to that or natural osmosis, when subject a hydrostatic pressure greater than the osmotic pressure.
Diffusion: Movement of molecules from their higher concentration to their lower concentration is called diffusion.
Facilitated diffusion: The movement of molecules from their higher concentration to their lower concentration with the help of carrier protein is called facilitated diffusion.
Structure: Mitochondria are the double membrane bounded structures found only in eukaryotes.
Outer membrane: The outer membrane of a mitochondrion is smooth.
Inner Membrane: The inner membrane forms man enfolding called cristae in the inner mitochondrial matrix.
Endocytosis is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by the infolding of cell membrane. It si of two types which are;
Many cells take in materials from outside in the form of food vacuole and then digest the material with the help of lysosomes.
Some unicellular organisms use contractile vacuole or the elimination of wastes from their bodies.
The outward pressure on cell wall exerted by internal water is known as turgor pressure.
Ribosomes are either floating freely in cytoplasm or bound to endoplasmic reticulum.
Riobosomes are the sites of proteins synthesis.
Protein synthesis is extremely important to cells, and so large numbers of ribosomes are found throughout cells.
Leucoplasts are type of plastid. They are colourless and store starch, proteins and lipids. Theyy are present in those cells where food is stored. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotes. They contain chlorophyll, the green pigment necessary for photosynthesis, and associated pigments. These pigments are present in thlakoids of the grana.
The golgi bodies are sac like structure present in plant and animal cells. These sacs can be transported to various locations in cell or to its exterior, in the form of secretions. Lsosomes are single membrane bound organelles. It act as to break down the targeted material.
Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution of lesser solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration.
It is involved in lipid metabolism and in the transport of materials from one part of the cell to the other.
It also detoxifies the harmful chemicals that have entered cell.
The shrinkage of cytoplasm is called plasmolysis.
The membranes of nerve cells have carrier proteins in the form of sodium-potassium pump. In resting nerve cell this pump spends energy to maintain higher concentrations of K+ and lower concentration of Na+ inside the cell. For this purpose the pump actively moves Na+ to the outside of the cell where they are already in higher concentration. Similarly, this pumps moves K+ from outside to inside the cell where they are in higher concentration.
Phagocytosis: In Phagocytosis cell takes in solid material
Pinocytosis: In pinocytosis cell takes in liquid in the form of droplets. .
It is the process through which bulky material is exported.
Magnification is the increase in the apparent size of an object and it is an important factor in microscopy.
In the walls of neighbouring cells there are cytoplasmic connections called plasmodesmata. Through these connections, cells transfer chemicals among each other.
Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration and are the major energy production centers.
Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of interconnected chennels that extends from cell membrane to the nuclear envelope.
Types of endopasmic reticulum:
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
Cells with out proper nucleus Prokaryotes, while those cells which have not a proper nucleus are called eukaryotes.
When a transport protein moves a substance ffrom higher to lower concentration, the process is called facilitated diffusion. Facilitated diffusion is a passive diffusion because there is no expenditure of energy in this process. The rate of facilitated diffusion is higher than simple diffusion.
The cell membrane functions as a semi-permeable barrier, allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of chemicals inside the cell. In this way wthe cell membrane maintains the internal composition of the cell.
Contribution of Matthias Schleiden:
In 1838 a German botanist Matthas Schleiden studied plant tissues and made the first statement of the cell theory. He stated that all plants are aggregates of individuals cells which are fully independent.
Contribution of Theodor Schwann:
In 1839 a German zoologist Theodor Schwann reported that all animal tissues are also composed of individual cells. Thus Schleiden and Schwann proposed cell theory in its initial form.
In SEM electrons are relected from the metal coated surfaces. SEM is used to study the structure of cell surfaces.
They are composed of cells with rigid secondary cell walls. Their cell walls are hardened with lignin which is the main chemical component of wood. These tissues provide strength and flexibility to plants.
Leucoplasts are colourless plastids and store starch, proteins and lipids. They are present in the cells of those parts where food is stored.
Xylem tissue is responsible for transport of water, while phloem tissue transport food in plants body.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is so-named because of its rough appearance due to the numerous ribosomes that are attached to it.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER): lacks ribosomes and have smooth surface.
Primary wall: The outer laer of the plant cell wall is known as primary wall and cellulose is the most common chemical in it.
Secondary wall: Some plant cells such as xylem cells also have secondary walls on the inner side of the primary wall. It is much thicker and contains lignin and other chemicals.
Transmission Electron Microscope: TEM is used to study the details of the internal cell structure. In TEM electrons are transmitted through the specimen.
Scanning Electron Microscope SEM: In SEM electrons are reflected from the metal-coated surfaces. SEM is used to study the structure of cell surfaces.
The cytoplasm of the cell provides space for the proper functioning of the organelles. It also acts as the sites for various metabolic reactions for example glycolysis.
The internal wall of chloroplast give rise to sac like structures. This is called thylakoids.
Structure: These composed of striated cells and contain many nuclei.
Location: These are found attached to bones.
Function: These are responsible for movements of bones. These muscles are voluntary in action.
The movement of molecules or substance from their lower concentration to their higher concentration by the use of energy is called Active Transport.
Magnification: Magnification is the increase in the apparent size of an object and it is an important factor in microscop.
Resolution: Resolution is the minimum distance at which two objects can be seen as separate objects. It is the measure of the clarity of an image.
The cytoskeleton is a network of microfilaments and microtubules.
Microtubules are made of tubulin protein and are used by cells to hold their shape.
They are also the major component of cilia and flagella while microfilaments are thinner and made up of action protein.
These are single membrane bound organelles. It contain stroung digestive enzymes which break down the food particles and also waste materials.
Apicla meristem occur in roots and stems. In this length of plant is increased as a result of division, while lateral meristems is occur is roots and ends of stems, it cause horizontal expansion of plants.
The first compound microscope was developed by Zacharias janssen in Holland in 1595.
When we talk about all the membranes of a cell, we say them as cell membrane, while when we talk about only the outer membrane of cell, we say it as plasma membrane.
Internal membrane of chloroplast contain sac filled with liquid these are called thlaukoids. While the liquid present in chloroplast is called stroma.
The tissue which are made up of those cells which have ability to divided are called meristematic tissues. These tissue have al large nucleus and thin wall.
Two main types of meristematic tissues are:
Hypertonic solution: The solution which contain large amount of solute is called hypertonic solution while solution with lesser amount of solute is called hypotonic solution.
The process of cellular ingestion f bulky materials by infolding of cell membrane is called endocytosis while exportion of bulky materials through cell membrance is known as exocytosis.
Ciliated columnar epithelium
Those tissues which give support and flexibiligy to plants are called supporting tissues e.g collenchymas tissue and sclerenchyma tissue.
Cell wall of fungi is made up of chitin while prokaryotic cell wall contain a chemical known as peptidoglycan.
Plastids are membrance bound organelles that are only dound in plants and some photosynthetic protists.
Centrioles helps information of spindle fibre during cell division. In some cells they are also used to form cilia and flagella.
The solution which have relatively less amount of solute is called hypotonic while solution having equal concentrations of solute is known as isotonic.
Phloem tissue is responsible for the conduction of dissolved organic matter food in whole plant body.
The outward pressure on cell wall exerted by internal water is known as turgor pressure, and the phenomenon is called turgor.
All organisms are made up of one or more cells.
Cell are the smallest things the basic unit of organizations of all organism.
Cells arise only by the divisions in previously existing cells.
The organism which have a proper nucleus in their cells are called eukaryotic organisms, while which do not have a proper nucleus in their cells are called prokaryotic organis.
The solution with greater amount of solute is called hypertonic solution.
Lateral meristems are located on lateral side of rool and shoot by dividing. They are responsible for growth. This is called secondary growth.
The cell in which proper nucleus is not present is called prokaryotic cell.
Leucoplasts are used to store starch, protein and lipids.
Chromoplasts give colors to parts of plants, thus helpful in pollination
Electrons pass through or are reflected from object and make image. Electromagnetic lenses enlarge and focus the image onto a screen or photographic film.
Mitochondria are double membrane bounded structure found only in eukaryotes outer membrane of mitochondria is smooth, while inner membrane forms infolding called cristae.
Movement of molecules form area of higher concentration to lower concentration is called passive diffusion because in this process energy is not used.
Cell membrance is called semi permeable membrane because it only allow selective substances to pass through it while other are blocked. i.e. only specific size molecules can pass through it.