KPK Board 12th Class Biology Ch 18 Chemical Coordination Short Questions Answers

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define coordination?

Cooperative working of cells tissues and organs in the body of an organism is known as coordination.

What is chemical coordination?

The system of the body which communicates through secretion of chemicals is called chemical for hormonal system and its coordination is called chemical coordination are hormonal coordination.

Which functions of the body are controlled by the hormonal system?

The hormonal system is concerned with the control of different metabolic functions of the body for example rate of chemical reaction transport of substances through cell membrane growth secretion.

What are hormones?

hormones are the Chemicals secreted by endocrine glands These are the chemical message of the body site the formation site of hormones is the basal cell cluster called glands.

hormone synthesis occurs in response to specific conditions.

define glands and its type biochemical signal?

glands special cells or organs of the body that secrete some Chemicals are called the glands plans are two types exocrine glands exam in outside these glands secrete their Chemicals on to the target surface directly through duct they are also called the duct glands liver sweat gland there gland Chemicals the Chemicals of exocrine glands are called secretion endocrine glands and the mean insight these glands secrete their Chemicals into bloodstream thyroid gland adrenal gland chemical  Chemicals of endocrine glands are called hormones .

What is the chemical nature of hormones?

hormones are the chemical product of endocrine glands chemical nature based on their chemical structure the hormones are following three types steroid hormones amino acids and their drive is protein or polypeptide.

discuss steroid hormones?

These are also known as  steroid glands these glands secrete steroid hormones adrenal cortex glucocorticoid testosterone oestrogen progesterone are steroid hormones are  derivatives cholesterol they are carried by the bloodstream to their target site.

What are the derivative hormones of tyrosine?

It is one of the 22 amino acids used for proteins and its dietary source of chicken fish milk yoghurt cheese peanut almond pumpkin seed banana .

The driver takes two groups of hormones are the derivative of tyrosine metabolic hormones thyroxine and try thyroxine from Thyroid glands epinephrine and norepi  from adrenal medulla.

What is Goblet cell?

It is a unicellular exocrine gland location Goblet cells are Scattered in the epithelial lining of intestine and respiratory tract in humans all such glands produce mucin.

It is a complex glycoprotein that forms a slimy mucus function; the mucus keeps the inner lining most for exchange of material and production.

What proteins are peptide hormones?

Many hormones in the body are protein. Are there derivatives?

protein hormonesGrowth hormone prolactin.

peptide hormones oxytocin antidiuretic hormone.

derivatives insulin parathormone glucagon .

Write a short note on pituitary gland?

pituitary gland it is also known as master gland of the body location it is located near hypothalamus of the brain size and shape it is about the size of pea grain and oval in shape its weight is about 0.5 gram it has three loop interior look median lobe posterior lobe .

Pituitary hormones play an important role in controlling secretion of other glands.

discuss the anterior lobe of pituitary gland?

it is important part of pictures we that secrete following hormones STH it is Zomato tropic hormone that help in growth TSH it is the thyroid stimulating hormone that signals thyroid gland The Secret thyroxine it is adreno cortico trophic hormone that act on adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland secrete adrenaline gth it is tropic hormone that act on gonads FSH and LH.

Discuss hormones of median pituitary?

It’s the following hormones it is Milano phor stimulating hormone which enhance the production of Milano site in cytoplasm.

Which hormone secreted by the posterior lobe?

It is the antidiuretic hormones are respiration that help in water balance of the body.

Oxytocin Oxytocin hormones act on uterine muscles contracted during childbirth.

discuss some abnormalities that arise from imbalance of hormones?

following are some abnormalities that arise due to imbalance of hormones  gigantism.

it is the result of over secretion of GH during childhood during which a person becomes abnormally due to the high rate of bone development.

dwarfism is due to deficiency of growth hormones during which the development is much slower and individual as a short starter.

acromegaly it is the abnormality due to hypersecretion of growth hormones during adulthood during which both are no longer capable to grow in length but grow in thickness.

What are thyroid glands?

It is an important gland of mammals located in neck region hormones it produces three important hormones thyroxin tri thyroxine T3 tetra thyroxine T4.

these hormones increase the metabolism of the body so it is produced at high levels during growth periods.

What is the importance of iodine for the thyroid gland?

iodine is an important mineral belonging to the Halogen group it is the important for the secretion of thyroxine in the absence of iodine the thyroid gland fails to secrete thyroxine this under secretion of thyroxine result in Goiter.

Results of hyposecretion of thyroxine?

are insufficient secretion of thyroxine can cause cretinism infants that thyroxine deficiency cause dwarfism condition called cretinism during which the individual has course scanty hair thick yellowish scaly skin and mentally retarded .

Greater this condition arise from the deficiency of iodine in our case is thyroxin is not secreted resulting in the swelling of the thyroid gland.

what do you know about pancreas?

It is a dual nature gland in the body location it is located near the liver exocrine portion is exocrine portion release pancreatic juice by a doctor to the digestive system endocrine portion and the crane portion of pancreatic secrete two important hormones the insulin and glucagon.

discuss islets of langerhans?

Island means Iceland the endocrine cell of pancreas are like island’s these were first observed by lange hens So are named after him the Island of langerhans these are of two types Beta cells these are large in number and are associated with the production of insulin hormones Alpha cells they cells are small in number and are concerned with glucagon hormone.

Discuss insulin hormone?

insulin is an important hormone produced by the Beta cells of pancreas functions it decreases the blood glucose level in two ways by increasing  utilisation of glucose converting glucose into  glycogen and protein.

In case of excessive insulin secretion Glucose level falls in blood due to high rate of its utilisation this disorder is called hypoglycemia that can cause heart problem hyposecretion if the body feels to produce insulin the condition is known as Diabetes mellitus.

What do you know about diabetes mellitus?

it is a disease caused by under secretion are lake of insulin affect the effects of diabetes mellitus on the body are high level of blood sugar sugar in urine disturbance of osmoregulation disorganised nervous system damage to kidney it disable the body to use it energy treatment treatment of diabetes include self-monitoring of glucose and medication in 7 cases insulin injections.

What do you know about glucagon?

this hormone is produced by Alpha cells of pancreas and work oppositely to insulin function it increased the Glucose level in blood by converting glucose in back to glucose it also increase the rate of breakdown of fats glucagon abnormalities these are there tumors on Beta cells cause excessive glucagon secretion that cause high blood glucose level which internal damage the Alpha cells.

What are adrenal glands?

these are the two important glands present in mammals location adrenal glands are present on top of each kidney aldosterone increase the absorption sodium ions from glomerular filtrate androgen it work as male sex hormones corticosterone increase the blood glucose level and regulate mineral line balance adrenaline nor adrenaline .

What are the emergency hormones?

adrenaline and noradrenaline are known as emergency hormone because they are release in emergency adrenaline it dilate the blood vessels in some body parts skeletal muscles and increased heart output it is secreted in emotions are anger show the face become red noradrenaline it contract the blood vessels in some body parts gut and face that is why in fear the face become pale are white and a person feel Hollow in gut.

The other name for emergency hormones is Fright fight flight hormones.

What are gonads?

reproductive organ are known as gonads of organism are of two types on the basis of sex of organ the female gonads are called ovaries mailgun are called testis hormones both the also act as endocrine glands by production of important hormones hormones ovary secretes two important hormones estrogen progesterone testicular hormone the interstitial cells of testis produce a hormone called testosterone.

Write the function of ovaries hormone?

hormone produced by ovaries and are of two types of these are secreted by interstitial cells of ovaries functions it control the following functions thinking of uterine wall one set of menstrual cycle also add in healing and repair of uterine wall after childbirth progesterone it is produced by the ruptured follicle of ovary in response to alerts function it in Habit for fsh secretion to prevent anymore follicle from refining prepare uterus for pregnancy.

write down the result of deficiency of ovaries hormone?

and ovarian hormones are produced by ovaries there under secretion teas to abnormalities.

Estrogen deficiency.deficiency of this hormone in  young causes  failure to mature Sexually and  cause sterility  in adults.

progesterone deficiency its deficiency cause the failure of secondary sex characteristics.

What is a feedback mechanism?

it is a type of interaction in which thBiology Chapter 18e controlling mechanism is itself controlled by the product of the reaction explanation for which prepared body functions to the opposing system are needed if they are accelerated. There must be an inhibitor if one hormone in the body promotes a reaction and others would be checking him some.

discuss a positive feedback mechanism?

in this type of mechanism the variable in hands that changed or in other words the increase in output reinforce the input example during childbirth Oxytocin is produced the increased contraction of uterine was for contraction cease more Oxytocin that further increased contraction does body is pushed to birth canal.

What is a negative feedback mechanism?

it causes the variable to change in the opposite direction of initial change. The rise in output reduces the input example when blood glucose level rises is detected by an islet of pancreas which produces insulin to lower down the Glucose level.

write down three Cardinal signs of diabetes?

The Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus are following.

polyuria in the abnormality a large volume of urine is produced.

Polydipsia is a condition of excessive thirst.

polyphagia is a condition of excessive hunger.

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