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The Cooperative working of cells tissue and organ is multicellular organisms is known as coordination importance coordination is important for living organisms because it provide chances for better Survival by the organism.
in animals the coordination is Greater and complicated. It is controlled by 2 systems of the body nervous coordination This type of coordination is due to the nervous system that extends throughout the body of animal hormonal coordination it is controlled by special chemicals secreted by gland it is also known as chemical coordination.
Any detectable change in the surrounding organisms is known as stimuli. Stimuli are of the following two types: external stimuli; these are the changes in the external environment of an organism’s internal stimuli; these are the internal changes that occur within the body of organisms.
Those parts of the body which receive the stimuli are called receptors are transducers type receptors are of following types based on their stimuli.
photoreceptor: these are sensitive for changes in light of rod and cons of eye chemoreceptors: these are sensitive for chemical change of Taste buds
mechanoreceptors: these are responsible to detect acceleration of receptors for that is skin thermoreceptors these receptors are sensitive for his changes.
Noci: receptors these receptors detect pain.
the nervous system is made up of special cells called neurons. These neurons transmit the information and a form of electric signal is called nerve impulses.
glands are special organs in the body of organisms that secrete important chemicals.
Exocrine glands are also known as the gland that carry their secretion product to a particular site of the pancreas and digestive portion of liver.
endocrine glands: these are ductless glands they carry their secretion directly into the blood.
Those organs are cells of the body which work according to the order of the nervous system are called effectors.
example muscles glands.
The structural and functional unit of nervous system neurons are following types of sensory neurons the neurons carry in a message from receptors to see and motor neurons carry the message from CNS two factors associated neurons are part of the brain and spinal cord they join the sensory neurons with motor neurons.
in higher animals The Nervous system is fully developed and it work throw is fully developed and it worked for following is a stimulus is received by receptors stimulus pass to sinestro sensory nerve CNS send message karo maternal stimulus receptors sensory nervous nervous to Brain Brain to spinal cord to motor nerve to response.
It is the system of the animal’s body through which they detect changes in the environment and prepare the body to respond accordingly.
The human nervous system is composed of following parts CNS it is the central nervous system that lies at the middle of the body and consists of the brain and spinal cord peripheral nervous system it lies at the side of the body and consists of sensory and motor nerves.
Those organs of the organism that detect changes in the external environment are called sense organs. Important sense organs help the animals to notice that changes in their environment they help is coordination of sense organs and system.
the brain is the coordination centre of the body. The human brain is most complicated and advanced the type forebrain midbrain hindbrain for it is the interior part of the brain forebrain can be divided into following parts: cerebrum thalamus the limbic system.
It is the fastest and largest part of the brain that contains tens of billions of neurons packed together.
The hemisphere cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres: the left cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa .
Sulci gyri. These are the folds in cerebrum.
is the second part of forebrain it carries sensory information especially from eyes and ear and generally from skin and other internal organs to the limbic system and cerebrum.
The limbic system is a part of the forebrain location it is located is an Arc between the thalamus and cerebrum function and controls the responses like hunger fear angry tranquillity pleasure a portion of the limbic system is also important for memories.
midbrain it is the second part of brain location it is present under the cerebral hemisphere function it controls reflex movement of eyes and hearing reflexes it is a relay Santa that connects fore brain with hinde brain…
it is the last portion of human brain and consists of following parts it is the second largest part of brain it control balance of body Ponds it is located Above medulla and control the rate and pattern of breathing and sleep medulla oblongata it is the posterior part of the brain that controls automatic functions like breathing heart rate and blood pressure .
spinal cord it is the posterior continuation of the brain it is cylindrical in shape and is about 18 inches long. The most important function is to control reflex action of the body; it also conducts the sensation of from the trunk response.
it is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
parts of the neuron consists of following three parts it consists of cell membrane and cytoplasm with organelles is called cell body axon it is a long thread of neuron that axon of large neurons are generally covered with a white sheath called myelin sheath.
Dendrites these are small branches that arise from the cell body.
these are the accent Vita sudden involuntary and without the Awareness of organisms controls these actions are controlled by spinal cord to lover the burden on Brain at once response path of reflex action the path of nerve impulse during the reflex action is called the reflex arc the neurons involved in a reflex arc sensory associative motor neurones.
what are main light receptor means sensitive cells these receptors are specialised for the detect station of changes in light of ice but the whole structure of eye is not sensitive to light the receptors for light are present in the inner layer for the ay receptors are of two types rod they work in dim light. cons they work in Daylight.
the structural and functional units of the nervous system on the basis of structure neurons are following three types: unipolar neurons have only one radiating from the cell body. bipolar neurons have two fibres radiating from the cell body. A multipolar neuron has many fibres radiating from the cell body.
it is a wave of electrochemical changes that travel along the length of neuron channels the transmission of impulse along the neuron required the movement of fine across the membrane this is carried out by ting holes called channels having two types gets and pump.
electric potential is the measure of capacity to do electric work membrane potential the electric potential that exist across the membrane is called membrane potential forms resting membrane potential active membrane potential.
it is the net difference in the charge between the inner and outer surface of non contact in neurones it is also called a polarized state charge in resting membrane potential the outer surface of membrane has more positive charge than in a surface amount of charge the resting membrane potential is about 70 milli volt as a side of membrane is negative with respect to outside factors distribution and active movement of sodium and potassium ions negative organic ions leakage of K + ions.
it is the electric potential during which the inner membrane surface become more positive then the outside it is also known as action potential are the polarized estate duration discharge is so brief that only a portion of neuron is in active membrane potential state factors Ana positive and ke positive ions moment charges are reversed passage of nerve impulse amount of charge active membrane potential exist as – 5m volt .
in non myelinated neuron fibre potassium and sodium ions can move across the membrane all along the length of neuron do action potential flow as a wave is called continuous impulse impulse the myelinated neuron fibre are impermeable to K + and NA+ to prevent ionic exchange along the whole length of neuron this is also called slattery Impulse.
The contact point of neurons is known as synapse arrangement. Consecutive neurons are so arranged that the axon ends of the neurons are connected to the centroid of the next neurons .
cytoplasmic connection There is no cytoplasmic connection between that neurons and microscopic gaps are left between them; a single neurone me forms synapses with many incoming fibres of different neurons.
synapse are of following two types electrical synapse in this type of synapse the synaptic cleft is only of 0.2 millimetre chemical synapse majority of membrane potential are chemical synapse where naptor cleft has given up of more than 20 NM.
These are the chemical messengers of The Nervous System number there are more than hundred known Neurotransmitter types based on their function the neurotransmitters are of two types.
Excitatory: Desh produces an excited action of acetylcholine.
inhibitory these inhibit the action potential of glutamates.
These are the protective membranes that Surround the brain and spinal cord layers. The meninges consist of the following three layers: dura mater ,Arkanoid matter.
These are important for the protection of the central nervous system.
CSF is the Siri browse spinal fluid that is present between Piya matter and Arkanoid.
production CSF is produced by blood vessels of brain and spinal cord process involved CSF is produced by combined process of diffusion and active transport occurrence it is present between Piya matter and Arkanoid around the surface of brain and spinal cord is the Ventricles of brain and Central hollow Canal of spinal cord function it protect the brain and spinal cord from mechanical shocks it play an important role in homeostasis and metabolism of CNS.
The central Cable of nervous system functions spinal cord perform following important functions it controls many reflex actions below the neck region it conducts impulses from second and muscles to the brain commande from brain to effectors it controls the body part in the trunk according to the order of the brain.
the collection of neuron cell bodies are called ganglia plexus the complicated interconnection of one ganglia with another is called plexus function ganglia provide intermediate connection between peripheral and central nervous system these are the bundle of neuronal fibres all the nervous communicate between receptor to CNS and from CNS to effectors.
these nerves arise from spinal cord number there are 31 pair of spinal nerves which are following thoracic 12, cervical 8, sacral5,coccygeal 1, lumber 5 total 31 cranial are cerebral nerf these nerves arise from brain there are 12 pair of cranial nerves which are extended to abdomen .
It is the part of the peripheral nervous system . it controls the sensory and motor information between CNS and the involuntary part of the body.
Control: it controls the skeletal muscles and as well as external sensory organs including skin.
Autonomic nervous system: it consists of sensory and motor nerves that are between nerves CNS.
Control: it controls the contraction of both cardiac and smooth muscles; its action is mostly involuntary.
10 mm pathetic divisions control various automatic functions during the state of emergency if tries blood pressure dilate The Pupil stimulate glycogenolysis decrease blood flow to skin and Viscera peristalsis inhibit.
These are present in our tongue and contain many ridges and valleys called papillae.
There are four types of papillae.
Filleform: these are cones shaped and found all over the tongue and give it rough shaped.
Fungi form .These are mushroom shaped and found at the tip and side of tongue.
foliate. These are a series of folds along the side of the tongue.
These are also known as vallate papillae, they are 8 to 12 in number and dome shaped and situated on the tongue in row.
the test of smell is called olefication..
the receptors for smell are present in our nose in the form of olfactory mucosa olfactory receptors neurons have cilia that contain receptor protein each sensitive for different odors.
the sense of touch is known as tactetion receptors the receptor for touch are present in our skin tongue throat and mucosa distribution touch receptor are not distributed evenly in the body the fingertips and rich in these receptors tactile anaesthesia the loss of ability to feel anything is called tectile anaesthesia.
Paraesthesia: it is the number of the skin that may be permanent or temporary.
No see receptors are the receptors for pain stimulation when sensory nerve fibre are exposed to Extreme their signal pain function the main function of these receptor this to warm us about dangers importance without pain people could do many dangerous things without realising it type of nociceptors the noci receptors are of following three types cutaneous somatic visceral.
Heroine is a highly addictive drug processed from morphine medicals used under normal condition heroin is a strong energetic.
under medical use it is used as injections during severe pains.
Post surgical pain and end stage cancer.
Cannabis are marijuan is prepared from Cannabis plant it’s another form is known hashish.
Medical used in medicines is used to stimulate hunger in chemotherapy and energetic the most common abuse of Cannabis is its use during anxiety depression.
Nicotine is an alcohol that is mainly found in tobacco leaves.
The primary use of nicotine is treating patient habit value of smoking IT Act both as nerve stimulator and pain killer nicotine is very dangerous and toxic it is abused throw smoking can cause cancer and heart disease 1-2 milligram is enough to make a person addictive IT Act as both stimulant and relaxant..
stroke is a Siri bro vascular accident that occurs when blood supply to the brain is reduced.
it is caused by decrease in supply or destruction of blood.
reply to the Brain causing the brain cells to die the stroke is of following two types ischemic stroke it is caused by a blood clot that block the blood vessels in brain hemorrhagic it occur when the blood supply to the brain is completely stopped symptoms number nurse is one side of the body confusion , dizziness, loss of balance, severe headache .
protective membrane inflammation is the inflammation of brain and spinal cord membranes due to virus bacteria or other microbes symptoms fever, chill, nausea for photophobia.
headache stiff neck, decrease consciousness .
Treatment antibiotics and corticosteroid are generally used for treatment.
Brain Tumor is a mass of abnormal cells due to uncontrolled growth of branches symptoms new one set of head its vision problem gradual loss of sensation difficulty with balance personality and behaviour changes treatment surgery radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a General treatment for tumors.
it is a progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age due to brain degeneration cell death sign and. Symptoms: most common symptoms is loss of memory,personality change, trouble is figures, and counting disturbance, in behaviour agitation ,quarrelsomeness .
Following are risk factors increasing age beta amatoide protein.