KPK Board 10th Class Physics Ch 7 Introductory Electronics Short Questions Answers

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What are free electrons?

Ans.    Free electrons:

Definition:    Free electrons are those electrons which are free from any binding energy and can travel anywhere if they get even a fraction of energy.

Explanation:             If we apply some energy to an atom, for example calcium (Ca), it loses its valance electrons / s. This valance electrons roam freely in a medium until it finds some place (for example this electrons can be attracted by chlorine). Similarly, in case of metals, electrons are bounded by metallic bonds. If some amount of energy (equal or greater than its function) is applied, these electrons will be rejected from the metal surface and will roam freely, which are called free electrons.

What is the function of accelerating anode in electrons gun?

Ans.    The main function of the accelerating anode in electrons gun is to accelerate electrons towards the florescent screen.

Explanation:             Electrons are emitted from the filament by thermionic emission. These electrons are then directed towards the screen at a high speed with the help of accelerating anode in order not to lose any electrons in the way.

The electrons beam in a television tube is striking just one point on the screen at a time, how can we get full picture then? Explain.

Ans.    The electrons beam is scanned on whole screen in saw tooth shape , that is why we get a full picture as shown in the figure


Explanation:             When the beam of electrons hits the screen, it excites a fluorescent coating usually phosphor – which then glows. The beam is scanned across the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines called a raster. Controlling the intensity of the beam at a particular point allows a picture to form. Colour televisions use three electron guns and three types of screen coating that glow red, blue and green combing these in various proportions to produce any colour.  

Why image is distorted when magnet is brought close to old television screens or monitors with cathode ray tube (CRT) inside

Ans.    When magnet is brought to an old television screen or monitor with CRT inside, it deflects the beam of electrons (due to which we see the screen) and distort the image.

Explanation: CRT generate light by shooting finely focused beam of electrons to create a spot of  light and deflecting it using magnetic field to create the picture so magnetic field will affect the picture. For black and white television this will distort the picture but for colour televisions there three separate beam for red green and blue. These beams shine through a set of fine holes in a metal plate (the shadow mask) to strike the red green and blue phosphor dots. A magnetic field will cause the wrong beam to strike the dot and affect the colour. You should be very careful with magnets near colour CRT tubes because the affect can permanent because you can magnets the shadow mask to permanently distort the colour.

Assuming that cathode rays are a beam of charged particles, how could you demonstrate that these particles are negatively charged? Explain?

Ans.    We can easily demonstrate that cathode rays are negatively charged by passing these rays through an electric and magnetic field.

Explanation:             When cathode rays are passed through an electric field, they are attracted towards positive electrode which confirms their negative nature. Similarly, when these rays are passed through a magnetic field, they deflect showing the nature of negative charges. Therefore, it is easy to find the negative nature of cathode rays by using electric and magnetic fields.

If there are 4 inputs in any logic gate, how many combinations are possible?

Ans.    There will be sixteen (16) different possible combinations if there are four inputs in any logic gate.

Explanation:             Adding more input terminals to a logic gate increases the number of input state possibilities. With a single-input gate such as the inverter, there can only be two possible input states either the input is “high” (1) or it is “low” (0). A two-input gate has four possibilities (00, 01, 10, and 11). A three-input gate has eight possibilities (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111) for input states. A four-input gate has sixteen possibilities (0000,  0001,  0010,  0011,  0100,  0101,  0111,  1000,  1001,  1010,  1011,  1100,  1101,  equal to two to the power of the number of inputs:

Number of possible input states = 2n

Whereas,     n = number of states

What conditions produce a high (1) output for an AND gate and NOR gate?

Ans.    To produce a high (1) output, the condition for AND gate is that both the inputs must be high (1); and the condition for OR gate is that if any or both of the inputs are high (1).

Explanation:            the truth tables for AND and OR gate are given below.

Truth table for AND gate:

Input (1) Input (2) Output
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1

Truth table for OR gate

Input (1) Input (2) Output
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

It is clear from both the tables that to produce a high (1) output, the conditions for AND gate is that both the inputs must be high (1); and the condition for OR gate is that if any or both of the inputs are high (1).

What are the algebraic Boolean to expressions the output of AND, OR, NOT, NAND and NOR gates?

Ans.    Boolean equation for AND gate:            The Boolean equation for an AND gate is given by: X = A.B   or simply   X = AB

Which is read as “X equals A and B”.

Boolean equation for OR gate:               The Boolean equation for an OR gate is given by:    X = A+B

Which is read as “ X equal A or B”.

Boolean equation for NOT gate:         The Boolean equation for a NOT gate is given by:                                           X = A

Which is read as “X equals NOT A”.

Boolean equation for NAND gate:         The Boolean equation for a NAQND gate is given by:         X = A.B   or simply                     X = AB

Which is read as “X equals NOT A and B”.

Boolean equation for NOR gate:            Thy Boolean equation for a NOR gate is given by:    X = A + B

Which is read as “ X equals NOT A or B”.

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