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Malakand Board 12th classes short questions Answer
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Acetic is also known as glacial acetic acid, because it can form an ice like solid when cooled. It is miscible with water, ether and ethanol. Acetic acid is a typical carboxylic acid and it gives all the reactions of this class.
Carboxylic acid exhibits hydrogen bonding between the two acids molecules as shown.
Thus the carboxylic acid exists as dimer in which two molecular have been associated in to one molecule. Thus the size of the molecule increased which account for the higher boiling points of carboxylic acid. No such type of diamerization takes place in alcohols. Thus carboxylic acids have high points as compare to corresponding alcohols.
Carboxylic acids are stronger acids then phenol, alcohols and water but less acidic then mineral acids. Because mineral acids are completely dissociated in aqueous solution while carboxylic acids dissociated partially in aqueous solution.
Phenol & Carboxylic acid: Carboxylic acids are more acidic then phenols because when acid losses it proton the acetate ion formed is more stable and the -ve charge is with more electronegative oxygen atom.
Phenol: Similarly when phenol losses its proton it gives phenoxide ion which is less stable though -ve charge is delocalized but in resonating structures. The -ve charge ion less electro-ve carbon atom due to which it has high energy and less stability.
Alcohol & Carboxylic Acid: Alcohols are les acidic then carboxylic acids, because when carboxylic acid dissociates it forms acetate ion which is resonance hydride. That’s why carboxylic acids are more acidic then alcohols.
Formic acid, Acetic acid
It is clear from the structures of both acetic acid and formic acid that Acetic acid has one alkyl group directly attached with carboxylic carbon and it will release electron to the carboxylate ion and thus tends to destabilized it as a result of which the loss of proton from acetic acid becomes difficult as compare to formic acid where a hydrogen atom is attached with carboxylic acid which is a electron attracting group i.e. why formic acid is more stronger acid as compare to acetic acid.
Chloroacetic acid is more acidic then acetic acid because chloride is more electronegative due to which it will attract electrons towards itself and hence the release of proton is easier. While is acetic acid the electron donating (CH) methyl group is attached which increase electron density on oxygen of (OH) group due to which release of proton become difficult hence it is a weak acid as compare to Chloroacetic acid
Carboxylic acids do not undergo addition reaction frequently as compare to aldehydes it is because in carboxylic acids acyl group CH-C is attached with hydroxyl group (OH) which is an electron donating group which will decrease the positive charge on the carbonyl carbon as compare to aldehyde where acyl group 15 attached with hydrogen (H) which not an electron donating group thus it do not neutralized the positive charge on carbonyl carbon making aldehydes more,susceptible to addition as compare to carboxylic acids.
Acids halides are the most reactive among all the derivatives of carboxylic acids because in all derivatives the Acyl group CHC -) is attached with electron donating groups which decreases positive charge on the carbonyl carbon except in acid halides where chlorine (halogen) is attached with acyl group which is electron withdrawing group and hence carbonyl carbon becomes more susceptible to nucleophilic attack as compare to the other derivatives. The order of reactivity is
Acid halide > Anhydride > Ester > Amides.