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Class/Subject: 11th Class Computer
Chapter Name: Computer Memory
Board: All KPK Boards
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KPK 11th Class Computer Chapter 2 Computer Memory Short Questions Answers
Computer memory is used to store data and instructions on temporary or permanent basis. It is the storage space inside computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. The memory is divided into large number of small parts called cells.
Memory is basically of three types:
Primary Memory/Main Memory
BIT: BIT stands for ‘binary digit.’ It’s a single digit in a binary number, and it can be either 1 or 0.0 is used for circuit off and 1 is used circuit on. It is the smallest and basic unit of information stored computer memory and there are eight bits in a byte.
Byte: In computer system, a byte is a unit of data that is eight bits long. AA byte represents a character such as a letter, number, or special symbol for example, “k”, “4”, or “#” etc.
Large amounts of memory are:
Kilobytes (bytes), megabytes (bytes), and gigabytes (bytes)
Memory Word: A word is natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. The size of a word varies from one computer to another, depending on the CPU. For computer with a 16-bit CPU, a word is 16 bits (2 bytes). Modern computers usually have a word size 16, 32 or 64 bits.
It is extremely fast memory lies in between processor and RAM. A cache memory is used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average time to access data from the main momory.
There are three levels of cache memory.
When the CPU needs data it looks in cache memory.
The L1 cache is the smallest and high speed piece of memory, directly accessed by the processor. It hold data that the processor needs to execute instructions.
The L2 cache pulls information from RAM, which is then accessed by the L1 cache. It is bigger in size and slower in speed than L1 cache. It can store up to 16 MB data and slower in speed than L1 cache. It can store up to 16 MB data and instructions.
The L3 cache is the largest cache and faster than RAM but slower than L1 and L2 cache. L3 cache has typically been built into the motherboard. When a processor accesses data from higher level caches, it may also move the data to the lower cache for faster access next time.
Secondary memory is a type of computer memory that is not directly accessed by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer and is usually available as non-volatile memory.
Secondary memory is used:
To provide permanent storage
To provide large and cheap storage
To carry data from one computer to another.
To reuse date again and again for several years
Secondary memory is used in hard drive, magnetic tapes, memory cards etc.
Registers are fast speed storage locations within the processor that are used to temporarily store the data during processing.
All data must be represented in registers before it can be processed. For example, if two numbers are to be multiplied, both number must be in registers, and the result is also placed in registers.
Registers temporarily store binary information and pass it to the other parts of the processor or main memory during program execution.
|It is slower than SRAM.
|It is faster that DRAM
|It is less expensive.
|It is more expensive.
|It has to be refreshed after each read operation.
|It does not need to be power- refreshed
|It utilizes more power.
|It utilized less power.
Secondary storage is magnetic in nature and their fore magnetic mechanisms are used to store the data permanently.
Secondary storage gives additions memory to the computer to save data and provide backup to primary memory.
The storage capacity of these devices goes to fear bytes.
Secondary storage devices are non-volatile so that electricity failure or switching off the computer does not harm or lose data.
|It is made from semi-conducting material.
|It is made from magnetic material.
|It is very fast.
|It is slow.
|No mechanical moving part involved.
|It stores larger amount of data than chip memory.
|It stores smaller amount of data than magnetic memory.
|It stores larger amount of data than chip memory.
|Examples are: RAM, ROM Memory Cards etc.
|Examples are: Hard drive, Magnetic tapes etc.
|1 Small amount of memory lies in between main memory and processor.
|Small memory devices located inside processor.
|Can store data up to 12 MB.
|Can store not more than 200 bits data.
|Store data and instruction required for processing.
|Store only instruction required for processing.
|Cache is used to keep track of frequently used data.
|Register is used for different purposes like storing the result of arithmetic and logic operations.
|Non- volatial memory
|Requires a power source to retain information.
|Does not required a power source to retain information.
|When power source is disconnected, information is lost or deleted.
|When power source is disconnected, information is not deleted.
|Offer used for temporary retention of data, such as with RAM, or for retention of sensitive data.
|Often used for long-term retention of data, such as files and folders.
|Speed is faster.
|Speed is slower.
|Example RAM, Cache, register.
|Example: ROM, Had – Disk, Flash Drive.
|It is thin and long plastic strip coated with a magnetizable material.
|Magnetic disk are metal discs that are coated with special material to store data.
|The magnetic tape is a sequential access storage device.
|The msgnetic disk is a direct access storage device.
|These are used as digital as well as analog data storage devices.
|These are used only as digital data storage devices.
|Magnetic tapes store large amounts of data up to 5 Terabytes.
|Magnetic disk can store small amount of data than magnetic tapes.
|Magnetic tapes are shockproof.
|Magnetic disks are not shockproof.
|It is Erasable Programmable Read only Memory.
|It is an Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
|The data can be erased with the help of Ultra Violet rays.
|In this memory, the data can be erased and reprogrammed with the help of electrical pulses.
|It takes about 20 minutes to erase entire data from EPROM chip.
|It takes few milliseconds to erase entire data from EEPROM chip.
Sequential Access Storage
It is storage system where the data is stored and read in linear or sequential order. Common example of this types storage is an audio/vidio cassette. The main drawback of this types memory is that is usually takes longer to access data.
Direct Access Storage
It is also called random access storage system where data stored and read directly from storage devices.
Common example of this type of storage are Hard disk and compact disks.
Direct access is efficient than sequential access.