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Class/Subject: 11th Class Computer
Chapter Name: Central Processing Unit
Board: All KPK Boards
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KPK 11th Class Computer Chapter 3 Central Processing Unit Short Questions Answers
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a part of CPU. It perform all arithmetic i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division and also local operations. Laical operation means comparing two data items to find which data item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other. The data required to perform the arithmetic and logical functions are received from the CPU registers and then results are also stored in registers.
Control Unit (CU) is an important component of CPU. CU does not actually process or store the data but it manages and coordinates all the units of a computer.
It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic/logic unit, input and output devices how to reply program’s instruction. The control unit fetches an instruction by sending an address and command to the memory unit. The instruction is then transferred to the control unit for decoding. Finally it generates the important signals to execute the instruction.
Microprocessor is the brain of a computer. Just like human brain which control all the activities of human body, the microprocessor controls all the operations of a computer. Microprocessor is also called CPU. A computer cannot work without it. Microprocessor is located on motherboard. Microprocessor executes all the instruction and also controls
the storage off data, input output activities and functions of different devices.
Microprocessor consists of the following five basic components.
Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
Control Unit (CU)
System Bus: is a data communication line that connects the CPU and main memory on motherboard. Computer normally have system bus of 70 – 100 different lines.
There are 3 different types of system busres:
Data Bus: A bidirectional bus which transfers instructions from memory to processor for execution.
B. Address Bus: A unidirectional bus which actually transfers addresses not data from processor to memory.
c. Control Bus: A unidirectional bus is a computer bus that is used by the CPU to communicate with devices that are contained within the computer.
MBR is a type of register which is used to store the data coming from the memory or going to the memory. To store the word in memory it must be transferred to MBR and then it will go to the specific memory location.
In computer system processor is the unit which carries the program instructions by performing the basic arithmetic. logic and input/output operations.
The basic operation of most CPUs, is to executes a sequence of stored instructions called a program. The instruction are kept in some kind of computer memory.
There are four steps that almost all CPUs following in their operation:
Fetch, decode, execute and store.
An instruction is a sequence of 0s and 1s that describes a physical operation the computer is to perform (such as “Add”). Instructions are stored in main memory waiting to be processed.
Different types of CPU can execute different instructions. Normally’s modern CPU can execute 80 to 120 instructions. There are four types of instructions:
Data Transfer Instruction
Arithmetic and Logical Instructions
Input / output Instructions
Control Transfer Instructions
In computer, an Op-code (addreviated from operation code) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed. Beside the Op-code itself, instructions usually specify the data they processes in form of operands.
An operand is a word used to described any object that is capable of being manipulated. For example, in “1 +2” the “1” and “2” are the operands and the plus symbol is the operator.
An instruction format is the layout of the bits of an instruction. An instruction format must include an Op-code (Operation-Code) and zero or more Operands. The Op-code will always be present.
Op-Code field is a group of bits define various processor operations like LOAD, STORE, ADD and SHIFT to be performed on some stored registers or memory.
Operand address field can be data or can refer to data i.e. address of data.
In computer, different instruction formats are used.
It required only Op-code having no Operand.
Examples are HALT, STOP which do not have any address.
One- Address Instruction:
It requires one Op-code and one Operand.
Examples are: LDA (load Accumulator), JMP (Jump) etc. these instructions require one address to do the operation.
For example JMP requires one address in order to jump to specific address location.
0…………….7, 8……………………20 bits
It requires one Op-code and two Operands.
0……….7, 8……………..19……………………….31 bits
Op-code Operand Operand
Example is: MOV, which moves data from memory location to the register and from register to memory location.
CISC and RISC are the two different types of processor architectures. CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer and RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer.
|Hardware plays important role in CISC processor.
|Software plays important role in RISC processor.
|CISC instruction utilize more cycles.
|RISC instruction utilize less cycles.
|Performs basic as well as complex functions.
|Performs only basic functions.
|Use less registers.
|Use more register.
|Examples of CISC Processors: Motorola 680, Intel486 and Pentium series.
|Examples of RISC Processors: IBM Power Pc, Sun SPARC, tablets etc.
Pentium 4 Intel Pentium 4 was introduced in November 20,2000. The Intel Pentium 4 contains both 32 and 64 bit processors. The typical speed of these processors ranges from 400 MHz to 2.4 GHz.
AMD stands for Advanced Micro Devices. The original Athlon processors were 32 bit and later Athlon are 64 bit. The speed of theses processors ranges from 1.33GHz to 2.33 GHz. Their bus lies between 100 and 200 MHz.