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Class/Subject: 9th Class Biology
Chapter Name: Transport
Board: Federal Board
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FBISE 9th Class Biology Chapter 9 Transport Short Questions Answers
Cells are the primary sites for metabolic processes. That is why they are regarded as the units of life’.
The clumping of blood cells during blood transfusion is called agglutination. If agglutination occurs, the clumped cells cannot pass through capillaries.
It is an important protein present in blood that maintains the water balance of the blood.
Angina Pectoris means “Chest Pain”. It is not as severe as a heart attack. The pain may occur in the heart and often in the left arm and shoulder. It is a warning sign that blood supply to heart muscles is not sufficient but the shortage is not enough to cause death.
If an Rh-negative person receives Rh-positive blood, he/she will produce anti-Rh antibodies against Rh factors.
The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. All arteries except pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated blood. Their structures are well adapted for their function.
When both atria contract and pump blood towards ventricles, this period in the cardiac cycle is called atrial systole.
The upper-thin walled chambers of the heart are called left and right atria (singular atrium).
One of the WBCs is granulocytes. Basophils are granulocytes that help in preventing blood from clotting.
The blood group system is the classification of blood-based on the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells. An antigen is a molecule;e that can stimulate an immune response for antibody production. These antigens may be proteins or polysaccharides. Their nature depends on the blood group systems.
The blood vessels composed of a single layer of cells that are used for the exchange of materials are called capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels. These are formed by the divisions of arterioles. The exchange of material between blood and tissue fluid is carried out through the capillaries.
Angioplasty is a mechanical widening of narrowed or obstructed blood vessels.
Surgery in which arteries or veins from elsewhere in the patient’s body are grafted to the coronary arteries to improve blood supply to heart muscles.
Transpiration is the loss of water from the plant surface through evaporation. This loss may occur through stomata in leaves, through the cuticle present on the leaf epidermis, and through special openings called lenticels present in the stems of some plants.
Temperature, Air humidity, Air movement, Leaf surface area
According to cohesion tension theory, the force which carries water (and dissolved materials) upward through the xylem is transpirational pull. Transpiration creates a pressure difference that pulls water and salts up from roots.
There is strong evidence that even mild water stress results in a reduced growth rate in plants.
The pale yellow liquid part of blood is called plasma. When blood is taken from an artery and an anticoagulant (a chemical that inhibits blood clotting) is mixed in it. After about 5 minutes, plasma separates from blood cells. which settle down.
The heart attack happens without chest pain or other symptoms. Approximately one-fourth of all myocardial infarctions are silent i.e. without chest pain or other symptoms. It is more common in the elderly in patients with diabetes mellitus and after heart transplantation.
Heart rate is the number of times the heartbeat per minute is called heart rate.
Pulse is the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery as blood is forced through it by the regular contractions of the heart.
It is also called cooley’s disease. It is a genetic disorder due to a mutation in the gene of hemoglobin. The mutation results in the production of defective hemoglobin and the patient cannot transport oxygen properly.
A person having both antigens A and B has blood group AB. Both antigens are present in it. So their blood serum will contain no antibody. A person having none of the A and B antigens has blood group O. So their blood serum will contain both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
Blood is a specialized form of connective tissue that is composed of a liquid called blood plasma and blood cells suspended within the plasma. The weight of the blood in our body is about 1/12th of our body. The average adult has a blood volume of 5 liters.
i. Roots anchor the plant in the soil.
ii. They absorb water and salts from the soil.
iii. They provide conducting tissues. These tissues distribute these substances to the tissues of the stem.
Transpiration maybe a harmful process in the sense that during the conditions of drought, loss of water from plants results in serious desiccation, wilting, and often death.
In tissues, capillaries join to form small venules, which join to form veins are called venules.
The lower thick-walled chambers of the human heart are called left and right ventricles. The left ventricle is the largest and the strongest chamber in the heart.
Stomata are minute openings in the lower epidermis of leaves guarded by guard cells. Stomata help in the exchange of gases.
Veins from the lungs that bring the oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the hearth are called pulmonary veins.
Xylem tissue is responsible for the transport of water and dissolved substances from roots to aerial roots. It consists of vessel elements and tracheids.
When one water molecule moves up in the xylem of the leaf, it creates a pulling force that continues to the root. This pulling force created by the transpiration of water is called transpirational pull.
i. Blood circulatory system (Cardiovascular system)
ii. Lymphatic system
It is a type of circulatory system in which blood does not remain in the blood vessels.
White blood cells die in the process of killing the germs. These dead cells accumulate and make the white substance called pus seen at the infection site.
It is also called blood cancer. Leukemia is the production of a great number of immature and abnormal white blood cells.
O blood group individuals are called universal donors because they can donate blood to the recipients of every other blood group.
In normal adults, the mass of the heart is about 250-350 grams, and its size is equal to a clenched fist.
The pathway on which oxygenated blood is carried from the heart to body tissues and in return deoxygenated blood is carried from body tissues to the heart is called systemic circulation.
The pathway on which oxygenated blood is carried from heart to lung and in return oxygenated blood is carried from lungs to heart is called the pulmonary circulation.
The relaxation of heart chambers fills them with blood and contractions of chambers propels blood out of them. The alternating relaxation and contractions make up the cardiac cycle and one complete cardiac cycle makes one heartbeat.
Systole: The period of atrial and ventricular contraction is called systole.
Diastole: When Atria and ventricles relax blood is filled in atria. This period is called diastole.
The average human heart beats 70 times/minute. So it would be at approximately 2.5 billion times during a lifetime of 66 years.
The field in surgery in which diseases of arteries and veins are managed by surgical methods is called vascular surgery.
The heart is enclosed in a sac called the pericardium. Pericardial fluid is present between the pericardium and the heart walls. It reduces friction between the pericardium and heart during contractions.
Monocytes are agranulocytes that produce macrophages that engulf germs are called monocytes.
Guard cells are bean-shaped cells in the lower epidermis of the leaf which control the opening and closing of stomata.
Fibrin or cholesterol is fatty material when accumulated in the arteries caused narrowing of arteries or atherosclerosis.
External to endodermis in the root and stem, there is a broad zone of cortex. It consists of large and thin-walled cells.
In dengue fever, there is a sharp decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. Because of this, patients bleed from the nose, gums, and under the skin.