FBISE 9th Class Biology Chapter 7 Bioenergetics Short Questions Answers

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Class/Subject: 9th Class Biology

Chapter Name: Bioenergetics

Board: FederalĀ  Board

Helpful For:

  • Federal Boards 9th Class Biology Annual Examination
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FBISE 9th Class Biology Chapter 7 Bioenergetics Short Questions Answers

Define Bioenergetics?

Bioenergetics is the study of energy relationships and energy transformations (conversions) in living organisms is called bioenergetics.

How many energy molecules are produced in aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

36 ATP molecules are produced as a result of aerobic respiration while 2 ATP molecules are produced as a result of anaerobic respiration.

Why it is incorrect to say that the energy-releasing step of respiration is the electron transport chain?

Energy is released in glycolysis and kerb’s cycle in the form of NADH AND FADH2. The electron transport chain transforms the energy present in these compounds to ATP.

What do you know about FAD+?

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is also a coenzyme like NAD+. It gets 2 hydrogens and reduces to FADH2.

What is ADP?

ADP stands for Adenosine Diphosphate. When the terminal bond of ATP is broken, a large amount of energy is released and ATP is converted into ADP. The breaking of one phosphate bond releases about 7300 calories per mole of energy.
Adenosine ——- PO4 — PO4 — PO4 = ATP
Adenosine ——– PO4 — PO4 arrow ADP + Pi + 7.3 K Cal/mole

Define Aerobic respiration?

A type of respiration in which glucose is completely oxidized by the free form of oxygen and as a result, 686000 calories per mole energy is released.

What is Alcoholic Fermentation?

In this type of anaerobic respiration, Pyruvic acid is further broken down into alcohol (C2H5OH) and CO2.
Pyruvic Acid arrow Ethyl Alcohol + Carbon dioxide
2 ATP molecules of energy are produced. It occurs in bacteria and yeast.

What is AMP?

AMP stands for adenosine monophosphate. ADP is broken down to AMP and Pi is released.
ADP + H2O arrow AMP + Pi + energy 7.3 (KCal/mole)

Define Anabolism?

There are certain constructive chemical reactions in which smaller molecules combine to form complex structures which occur in our bodies. They are called anabolic reactions and the process is called anabolism e.g. photosynthesis and assimilation of food.

What is ATP?

ATP is an abbreviation of adenosine tri-phosphate. It contains adenosine and three phosphates.
Adenosine and — PO4 — PO4 — PO4
ATP is energy currency. It is a packet of energy produced in mitochondria by the oxidation of glucose.

What do you mean by the term Autotrophic?

The term autotrophic is applied to those organisms which can prepare their food with the help of chlorophyll (photosynthesis) is called autotrophic.

What is the role of ATP in living organisms?

Synthesis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins), Movement, Transmission of nerve impulses, Active transport, Exocytosis, Endocytosis

Describe the structure of ATP?

i. Adenine (a double-ringed nitrogenous base)
ii. Ribose (a five-carbon sugar)
iii. Three phosphate groups in a linear chain

What is meant by a cell's energy currency?

The major energy currency of a cell is a nucleotide called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is the main energy source for the majority of the cellular functions like a synthesis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) movement, the transmission of nerve impulses active transport, exocytosis, and endocytosis, etc.

Define Photosynthesis?

The process of synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll, with oxygen as a by-product is called photosynthesis.

What is meant by pigments?

Pigments are substances that absorb visible light. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelength (colors) are called pigments.

Define Limiting Factor?

Any environmental factor the absence of deficiency of which can decrease the rate of a metabolic reaction is called a limiting factor for that reaction.

What are the locations for the occurrence of light and dark reactions?

Light reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. The dark reaction takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast.

How much the leaf surface is covered by stomata?

Stomata cover only 1-2% of the leaf surface.

Define Osmosis?

Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a region of the dilute solution to the region of concentrated solution through a selectively permeable membrane.

What are the raw materials for photosynthesis?

CO2 and water are the raw materials for photosynthesis.

What are redox reactions?

Oxidation-reduction reactions (which involve the exchange of electrons occur simultaneously) are also called redox reactions.

What is Clavin Cycle?

Clavin cycle is also called dark reaction. Dark reaction is the second phase of photosynthesis. It does not require light energy. In this reaction, glucose is synthesized in the absence of sunlight but the energy required is obtained by NADPH and ATP formed during light reaction.

What is Chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll is a green pigment inside the chloroplasts of plant cells. It enables plants to capture solar radiations to convert them into chemical energy of glucose.

Define Co-enzyme A?

The enzyme which combines with pyruvic acid to form acetyl COA before entering kerb cycle is called Co-enzyme A.

Can electrons be an energy source?

Electrons can be an energy source. It depends upon their location and arrangements in atoms.

How energy is recycled in a cell?

Cells constantly recycle ADP by recombining it with Pi to form ATP. The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi requires the expenditure of 7.3 KCal of energy per mole. The energy is obtained from the oxidation of foodstuff.

How carbon dioxide is taken into plants through leaves?

The air that enters the leaf through tiny pores (stomata) reaches into the air spaces present around mesophyll cells. This air carries carbon dioxide, which gets absorbed in the thin layer of water surrounding mesophyll cells. From here, the carbon dioxide diffuses into mesophyll cells.

Define Electron Transport Chain (ETC)?

The final phase of cellular respiration in which the compounds NADH and FADH2 are oxidized and their electrons pass along a chain of oxidation-reduction steps to produce ATP. This chain is called Electron Transport Chain.

What is Glycolysis?

It is the first stage of aerobic respiration. In glycolysis, glucose is converted into Pyruvic acid. It occurs in the cytoplasm and oxygen is not involved in this stage.

Why chloroplast is more in palisade mesophyll than spongy mesophyll?

The chloroplast is more in palisade mesophyll than spongy mesophyll because the palisade cells are on the upper surface of the leaf and receive light so they contain more chloroplast to be able to absorb more light.

What is the Kerbs cycle?

It is the second stage of aerobic respiration. In the Kerbs cycle, the Pyruvic acid molecules are completely oxidized into Carbon dioxide and Hydrogen.

Define light-dependent reactions?

During the first phase of photosynthesis, light energy is captured and is used to make high-energy molecules i.e. ATP and NADP. It takes place in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.

Define Oxidation?

The addition of oxygen, removal of hydrogen, or the loss of electrons is called oxidation. Oxidation is an energy-yielding process.

Define Reduction?

The addition of hydrogen, removal of oxygen, or the gain of electrons is called reduction. The reduction is an energy-consuming process.

Define Photolysis?

(Photo: light, lysis: breakdown) the breakdown of water molecules in the presence of light to release oxygen is called photolysis.

What are photosystems?

Photosynthetic pigments are organized into clusters for efficient absorption and utilization of solar/light energy in thylakoid membranes. These clusters are called photosystems.

What is Pyruvic acid?

In the first step of respiration, a molecule of glucose (6-C) is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid. It is a 3-C Compound.

What is Stroma?

Chloroplast has a double membrane envelope that encloses a dense fluid-filled region called stroma which contains most of the enzymes required to produce carbohydrate molecules.

What is Thylakoid?

Another system of membranes is embedded in the stroma of the chloroplast. These membranes form an interconnected set of flat, disc-like sacs called thylakoid.

What do you mean by Z-scheme?

The path of electrons through the two photosystems during the light reaction of photosynthesis is called Z-scheme due to its Z-shaped form.

Who discovered Dark reactions?

The details of Dark reactions were discovered by Melvin Calvin and his colleagues at the University of California.

How the temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis?

The rate of photosynthesis decreases with a decrease in temperature. It increases as the temperature is increased over a limited range.

Define Cellular respiration?

It is a process in which C-H bonds in food are broken down by oxidation-reduction reactions and energy is released in the form of ATP.

Name the steps involved in respiration?

i. Glycolysis
ii. Kerb’s cycle
iii. Electron transport chain

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