9th Class Biology: chapter 9 Transport Short Questions Answer
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The alternating relaxations and contractions form the cardiac cycle. One complete cardiac cycle is known as heart beat.
Pericardium is a sac like structure, which give protection to heart.
That type of transpiration which take place through stomata is called stomatal transpiration. Most of the transpiration occur through stomata.
The water is transported in aerial parts of plant by mean of xylem.
The most common blood group system is ABO blood group system which have following blood groups.
Blood Group A: Blood Groupg B
Blood Group AB: Blood Group O.
Pathway on which oxygenated blood is carried from the heart to the body tissues and in return deoxygenated blood is carried from the body tissues to the heart is called systematic circulation.
Capillaries are the smallest blood vessel present in tissues. Exchange of materials between blood and tissue fluid is carried out through capillaries.
Transpiration is called a necessary evil. It means that transpiration is a potentially harmful process but is unavoidable too.
Transpiration may be harmful process in the sense that during drought conditions loss of water from the plant results in wilting, serious desiccation and often death.
Transpiration also necessary because it creates transpiration pull, which involve in the transportation water and salts.
Blood is taken from an artery and an anticoagulant is mixed in it. After about 5 minutes, Plasma separates from blood cells, which settle down.
Anticoagulant is a chemical that inhibits blood coagulant.
Individuals of blood group O are called universal donors, while individual of blood group AB are called universal recipients.
Angina pectoris means chest pain occurs for reasons which are similar to cause of heart attack.
T-lymphocytes recognize antigen and then combat them in different ways.
B-lymphocytes which recognize antigens and synthesis antibodies against them.
An obstruction in a blood vessel, usually a lodged, blood clot, is called embolus.
The loss of water form the plant surface in the form of vapours is called evaporation.
Arterial Systole: After the filling of atria, both atria contact and pump blood towards ventricles. This period is called arterial systole.
Cardiac Diastole: Atria and ventricles relax and blood is filled in atria this period is called cardiac diastole.
The smallest blood vessels present in tissues are called capillaries. They are formed by divisions of arterioles.
The exchange of materials between blood and tissue fluid is carried out through capillaries.
The circulation system in which blood reach to targeted area by means of vessels and return back to heart by vessels is called closed circuit circulation.
Transfusion of blood group is done after confirming that no agglutination results in the blood of recipient. If agglutination occur, the clump cells can not pass through capillaries. For the confirmation of no agglutination, blood samples of donor and recipient are cross matched for compatibility.
Human heart works like a double pump. It collects deoxygenated blood from whole bod and send it to lungs for oxygenation. It also collects oxygenated blood form lungs and supply to whole body. In this way it acts as double pump.
Eosinophils: Break inflammatory substances and kills parasites.
Basophiles: Basophils prevent blood clotting.
It is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products form one person into the circulatory system of another.
Leukaemia is the production of great number of immature and abnormal white blood cells.
Cause: This is caused by a cancerous mutation in bone marrow or in the lymph tissue cells. This mutation results in uncontrolled production of defective white blood cells.
Treatment: It is a very serious disorder and the patient needs to change the blood regularly with the normal blood, got form donors.
It can be cured by bone marrow transplant which is effective in most cases, but very expensive treatment.
In pressure-flow mechanism the food is moved from sources to sinks.
Sources: Sources include the exporting organs, typically a mature leaf or storage organ.
Sinks: Sinks are the areas of active metabolism or storage.
Storage Organ: It is capable of storing food and exporting the stored materials.
The main function of stomata is to exchange of gases and to regulate transpiration via tha actions of guard cells.
Platelets help in clothing of blood. This clot serves as a temporary seal at damaged area.
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from heart.
In adults, all arteries with the exception of the pulmonary arteries, carry oxygenated blood.
Veins: A vein is a blood vessel that carries blood towards heart.
In adults, all veins with the exception of pulmonary veins, carry deoxygenated blood.
In human body two system perform the function of transportation.
Blood circulatory system.
WBSs die in the process of killing the germs these dead cells accumulate and make the white substance called pus, seen at infection site.
According to this theory, the force which carries water upward through the xylem is transpiration pull. Transpiration creates a pressure difference that pulls water and salts up form roots.
Myocardial infarction also known as heart attack. It occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted and leads the death of some cells of heart muscles.
Following factors affect the rate of transpiration.
Leaf surface area
Lenticels are special pores which are present in stems of plants.
It is the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery as blood is forced through it by the regular contractions of the heart.
Sources include the exporting organs, typically a mature leaf or storage organ.
Sinks: Sinks are the areas of active metabolism or storage.
Storage organ: It is capable of storing food and exporting the stored materials.
In human transport of materials take place by following two methods.
Blood circulatory system.
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away form hear.
In adults, all arteries with the exception of the pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated blood.
An antigen is a molecule that can stimulate an immune response.
The system of circulation in which blood reach to target area via arteries and come back thorough veins. i.e blood transport in body in vessels is called close blood circulatory system.
Structure of guard cells:
The two guard cell for a stoma are attached to each other at their ends.
The inner concave sides of guard cells that enclose a stoma are thicker than the outer convex sides.
Opining of Stoma: When guard cells get water and become turgid, their shapes are like tow beans and the stoma between them opens.
Closing of stoma: When guard cells loose water and become flaccid, their inner sides touch each other and stoma become closes.
Xylem tissues: Xylem tissue is responsible for the transport of water and dissolved substances from roots to the aerial parts.
Phloem Tissues: Phloem tissue is responsible for the conduction of dissolved organic matter between different parts of plant body.
Individuals of blood group O are called universal donor and those which carry blood group AB are called universal recipients.
The path way on which deoxygenated blood is carried from heart to lungs and in return oxygenated blood is carried from lungs to heart is called pulmonary circulation.
High temperature reduces the humidity of the surrounding air and also increases the kinetic energy of water molecules. In this way it increases the rate of transpiration.
The rate of transpiration doubles with every rise of 10 C in temperature.
At very high temperature i.e 40 – 50C cause closure of stomata. So, transpiration stops and plant does not loose too much need water.
The mechanism by which water along with dissolved materials is carried upward through the xylem is called transpirational pull.
A blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart i.e deoxygenated blood are called veins.
Transpiration in dry air: When air is dry water vapours diffuse more quickly from the surface of mesophyll cells into leaf air spaces and then from air spaces to outside. This increases the rate of transpiration.
Transpiration in humid air: In humid air the rate of the diffusion of water vapors is reduced and the rate of transpiration is low.
The attachment (Pasting) of molecules with other molecules is called cohesion, while attachment (Pasting) of molecules with the walls of Xylem is called adheshion.
Thalassa means sea and haem means blood.
It is a genetic problem due to mutations in the genes of hemoglobin. The mutation results in the production of defective haemoglobin and the patient can not transport oxygen properly.
Tratment: The blood of these patients is to be replaced regularly, with normal blood. It can be cured by bone marrow transplant but it does not give 100% cure rate.
Vascular surgery is type of surgery in which vascular diseases are treated by surgerical mechanism.
Karl Landsteiner discovered the Rh-blood group system. In this system there are two blood i.e Rh-positive, Rh-negative. These blood groups are distinct form each other on the basic of antigens called Rh-factors. First discovered in Rhesus monkey presen on the surface of RBCS.
A person having Rh factors has blood Rh-positive while a person not having Rh factors has blood group rh-negative.
Due to lack of platelets the patients bleed form nose, gums and under the skin is dengue fever.
Following factors leads to cardio vascular disorders. Advanced age, diabetes. High blood concentration of low density lipids high blood pressure, tobacco, obesity and sedentary lifestyle.
Heart is enclosed in a sac like structure known as pericardium.
A fluid is present between pericardium and walls of heart this is called pericardial. It reduce friction between pericardium and heart walls.
O blood group individuals are called universal donors because they can donate blood to every other blood group.
In ABO blood group system there are four groups of blood which are classify base upon the presence of specific antigens present on the surface of RBSs.
In plants root hairs increase the surface area of absorption to absorb water and minerals from soil.
Phloem is responsible for transporting food submstance throughtout plant body. The glucose formed during photosynthesis in mesophyll cells is used in respiration and excess of it is converted into sucrose. In most plant food is transported in the form of sucrose.
Plasma is primarily water in which proteins, slats metabolites and wastes are dissolved. Water constitutes 90-92% of plasma and 8-10% are dissolved substances salt make up 0.9% o plasma by weight. Proteins make 7-9% by weight in addition to this absorbed food, nitrogeneous wastes and respiratory gases are also present in plasma.
Transpiration is a beneficial process in the sense that t creates a pulling force called transpiration pull, which is responsible for conduction of water and salts form root to the aerial parts.
The alternation relaxations and contractions make up cardiac cycle. One complete cardiac cycle makes one heart beat.
The rate of transpiration also depends upon the surface area of leaf more surface area provides more stomata and there is more transpiration.