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Class/Subject: 9th Class Biology
Chapter Name: Nutrition
Board: Federal Board
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FBISE 9th Class Biology Chapter 8 Nutrition Short Questions Answers
The process in which food is obtained or prepared, absorbed, and converted into body substances for growth and energy is called nutrition.
The elements and compounds that an organism obtains and uses for energy or the synthesis of new materials are called nutrients.
The organisms which obtain water, carbon dioxide, and minerals from their environment and prepare their food which is then used for growth and energy are called autotrophic organisms.
The organisms which obtain their food from other organisms and use it for growth and energy are called heterotrophic.
Growth, Energy, and Function normally
Plants are autotrophic and prepare their food through photosynthesis. Plants get carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Plants also require mineral elements for various activities and structures.
The nutrients which are required by the plant in large quantities are called macronutrients. e.g. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc. These are nine in number.
The nutrients which are required by the plant in small quantities are called micronutrients. e.g. iron, boron, etc. These are eight in number.
Saliva contains an enzyme salivary amylase, which aids in the partial digestion of starch.
The term anemia means “a lack of food”. The condition is caused when the number of red blood cells is reduced to a level lower than the normal, caused by a deficiency of iron.
From the blind end of the caecum, there arises a non-functional finger-like projection called an appendix. Inflammation of the appendix due to infection causes severe pain called appendicitis.
Conversion and incorporation of absorbed simple food into the complex substances constituting the body is called assimilation.
A balanced diet may be defined as one which contains essential nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins in the correct proportion for the normal growth and development of the body.
After the processes of chewing, lubrication, and partial digestion, the pieces of bread and mutton are rolled up by tongue into a small, slippery, spherical mass called a bolus.
The stomach has two sphincters (openings that are guarded by muscles). The cardiac sphincter is between the stomach and esophagus. The bolus enters the stomach through it.
Minute quantities of vitamin C are present in muscles. Since meat consists of muscles so it is not a good source of vitamin C.
Vitamins B and C are known as water-soluble vitamins. These are soluble in water, so are excreted from the body as compared to fat-soluble vitamins which are much less excreted. So levels of water-soluble vitamins in the body can decrease quickly leading to vitamin deficiency.
Vitamins are the chemical compounds that are required in low amounts but are essential for normal growth and metabolism.
The condition in which bones become weak and bow under pressure. Mostly, it happened in children’s.
The condition is also known as “soft bone” which leads to the risk for fractures in bones. Mostly, it happened in adults.
Scurvy is a disease that happens due to the deficiency of vitamin A. This deficiency leads to changes in the connective tissues throughout the body.
Muscle pain, joint pain, swollen and bleeding gums, slow wound healing, and dry skin.
The active form of the enzyme pepsinogen that partially digests the proteins into shorter peptide chains is called pepsin.
According to the United Nations Children’s Funds, (UNICEF), malnutrition contributes to the deaths of more than 6 million children under age five every year.
Constipation is a condition where a person experiences hard feces that are difficult to eliminate.
In an adult human, the liver weighs about 1.5 kg and is the size of a football.
Bile contains pigments that are by-products of red blood cell destruction in the liver. These bile pigments are eliminated from the body with feces.
i. The elimination of feces
ii. Absorption of water and salts
Many bacteria live in the colon. They produce vitamin K, which is necessary for the coagulation of blood.
The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice in which the enzyme trypsin is present which helps in the digestion of proteins is called trypsin.
The medicines called laxatives (e.g. Paraffin) are used for the treatment of constipation.
In the folds of the ilium, finger-like structures are present, these projections are richly supplied with blood capillaries and help in the absorption of digested food. They also increase the surface area of the inner walls of the small intestine.
In the stomach, partially digested food is converted to a soup-like mixture called chyme.
Pepsin is not released in its active form. It is secreted as inactive pepsinogen, which requires HCl for activation. The mucous of gastric juice form a thick coating over the inner walls of the stomach and neutralizes the HCl there. It makes pepsinogen difficult to be activated and to attack stomach walls.
A drought is a period when there is not enough water to support agricultural and human needs.
Famine means the lack of enough food to feed all people living in an area is called Famine.
Causes: Unequal distribution of food, Drought, Flooding, Increasing population.
Goiter and Anaemia
Weakens the immune system, Impairs physical and mental death, Slows thinking, Stunts growth, Affects fetal development.
Cooking or heating destroys water-soluble vitamins more readily than fat-soluble vitamins.
i. It is needed to form collagen (a fibrous protein) that gives strength to collective tissues.
ii. Vitamin C in white blood cells enables the immune system to function properly.
Dietary fiber (also known as roughage) is the part of human food that is indigestible. It is found in plant foods and it moves undigested through the stomach and small intestine and into the colon. It is of two types: a-soluble dietary fiber, b-insoluble dietary fiber.
The vitamins which are soluble in fats and are much less excreted from the body are called fat-soluble vitamins. e.g. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are called fat-soluble vitamins.
Iodine deficiency in diet causes enlargement of the thyroid gland. Due to enlargement, it becomes prominent and protrudes from the neck region. This disease is called a goiter.
When the protein stomach is digested into peptides, these peptides stimulate some cells of the stomach wall to secrete hormone gastrin into the blood and distributed it to all parts of the body including the stomach. Here it has specific effects and stimulates the cells of gastric glands to secrete more gastric juice.
Next to the duodenum is 2.4 meters long is the jejunum. It is converted with the rest of the digestion of Proteins, starch, and lipids.
Calcium is essential for the development and maintenance of bones and teeth. It is also needed for maintaining cell membranes and connective tissues and for the activation of several enzymes. Calcium is also aids in blood clotting.
It is a disease caused by protein deficiency at the age of about 12 months when breastfeeding is discontinued. It can also develop at any time during a child’s growing years. Children may grow to normal height but are abnormally thin.
A dark reddish organ, the liver is the largest gland of the body. It lies beneath the diaphragm on the right side of the abdomen. It consists of a larger right lobe and a smaller left lobe. A pear-shaped greenish-yellow sac of the gall bladder is present on its right lobe.
Functions: i. Deamination: Removal of amino groups from Amino acids.
ii. Detoxification: Conversion of Ammonia into Urea.
Nutrient deficiency cause mineral deficiency means less availability of required minerals. The most common result of mineral deficiency is poor growth and development in children.
The oral cavity is the space behind the mouth and has many important functions. Food selection is one of them. Mastication, lubrication, and chemical digestion of food are other functions.
Aids in insulin action, Helps in growth and reproduction, Acts as an enzyme cofactor, Supports immune function.
Dietary sources of proteins are meat, eggs, grains, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acid, Proteins, Minerals, and Vitamins.
The three pairs of salivary glands (under the tongue behind the jaws and in front of ears) release a juice called saliva in the oral cavity. Saliva has two functions.
i. It adds water and mucous to the food which acts as lubricants.
ii. It has the enzyme amylase, which aids in the partial digestion of starch.
Protein-energy malnutrition refers to inadequate availability or absorption of energy and protein in the body. PEM may lead to diseases such as kwashiorkor and marasmus.