9th Class Computer Chapter 4 Data and Privacy Short Questions Answer
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Computer ethics are the moral rules and guidelines that determine the proper use of computer system. The computer should be used according to the ethics in order to avoid any problem in the society.
Five issues related to data security are confidentiality & privacy, piracy, patent, copyright and trade secret.
Confidentiality is the responsibility to keep other’s personal information private. It is a matter of taking care of other people.
Data privacy refers to the right of an individual or an organization to keep personal information private. It is typically related to the personal information stored on the computer.
The privacy and confidentiality have become very critical due to the use of computers and the Internet. The potential threat to the personal data includes the ‘improper use of computerized data.
Piracy refers to the process of making illegal copies of any work protected by the copyright law. It can be a book, software, song, movie, poetry, painting or house design etc.
The process of accessing a computer system and its resources legally is called authorized access. The process of accessing a computer system and its resources illegally is called unauthorized access.
Software piracy is the illegal copying, distribution or use of copyright software. Most licensed software can only be used by one user on one computer. The user can copy the software for backup but it is illegal to use it on different computer.
The open source software is available at no cost. Anyone can modify the code and redistribute it.
The software companies sell software along with a confidential text called key. The software can be activated using the key. The key is only given to the users who legally buy the software.
Some people try to get software key using illegal means. This process is known as cracking.
Five types of software piracy are soft lifting, client-server overuse, hard disk loading counterfeiting and online piracy.
Softlifiing is a process of borrowing a software application from a colleague and, installing it on your device.
Client-server overuse is a process of installing more copies of the software than number of licenses. It is typically done in client-server network.
Hard disk loading is a process of installing and selling unauthorized copies of the software on new or refurbished computers.
Counterfeiting is process of selling the duplicate copies of software.
Online piracy is a process of downloading the illegal copies of software.
Fraud and misuse refer to the unauthorized activities. The computers and the internet are frequently used to perform such activities. It includes theft of money by electronic means, theft of services and theft of valuable data.
Patent is a right that is granted to the owner for a certain period of time. It is effective way to protect the idea. It can be for any invention such as device, substance, method or process. Any other person or organization cannot copy that idea for a certain period of time.
It is important to register a patent if someone is doing research in any field and has a new idea. It stops other people to make or sell anything on the basis of that idea. The owner of the idea can exclusively use the idea to make and sell anything.
A copyright is a type of legal protection that protects some idea or product from being copied. It is illegal to use any copyrighted material such as book, software, picture, video or music. The copyright symbol is usually used with copyrighted material.
Trade secrets refer to the secret information of a company that play important role for its success. They have a lot of value and importance for the company. They provide the company an advantage over the other companies.
The trade secrets must be protected carefully. It ensures that the company has competitive advantage over others. The unauthorized use of trade secrets can harm the company.
Sabotage is a serious attack on a computer system. A malicious user can attack the computer system remotely over the network. The attacker may include virus with some free software. It may change or destroy information and sabotage important data on the system.
Five examples of these organizations are hospitals, NADRA, schools, Board of intermediate and Secondary Education and passport offices.
There are many companies that collect, buy and sell the consumer information. These companies are known as data brokers. They use this information to know the interests of the people.
A lot of information is generated when the user browses the Internet. This information is usually stored with the Web surfer known as cookies. The cookies can track the interests of the people when they visit different websites.
Encryption is the process of encoding plain data into unreadable format.
The unreadable format of data is called cipher text. It is performed in encryption.
The process of converting cipher-text back to plain text is called decryption.
Hacking usually happens when user downloads a file from the Internet and executes it. The software connects hacker to the computer. The hackers typically access the information for financial benefits such as stealing money from bank account or using credit card.
Spyware is a type of software that is used in hacking. It connects the hacker to the computer to access important information without user knowledge. It runs in the background and collects information such as bank details and passwords.
The National Response Center for cybercrime is a law enforcement agency of Pakistan. It is dedicated to fight cybercrimes, it is working under Federal investigation Agency (FIA). Its website is www.nr3c.gov.pk.
A phishing attack is a criminal activity in which the criminal uses fake email and website to get sensitive information such as username, password and credit card details.
A Denial of Service (DOS) is a cyber-attack that makes a machine or network resource unavailable. The attack makes the resource too busy by sending many requests for it. The actual user cannot get it. It sometimes overloads system so much that network is shut down.