11th Class Chemistry Chapter 6 General features of Chemical bond Short Question Answer

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11th Class Chemistry Chapter 6 General features of Chemical bond Short Question Answer Below

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1.Bond distance is the compromise distance two atoms. Justify it?
Atoms attract each other and energy of the system is lowered. When they reach at a certain distance, their force of attraction is the maximum. If they are brought further closer to this distance, they start repelling each other and energy of the system increases. It means they have minimum energy at a certain distance. This is the bond distance at which they compromise with each other to have minimum energy and is called compromise distance.
2. Why the distinction between a coordinate covalent bond and a covalent bond vanishes after bond formation in NH4 and H3O+?
There are four bound between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms in NH4.No doubt one of the bonds is coordinate covalent and three bonds are covalent, but every bond has 25% coordinate covalent bond character and 75 % covalent bond character.
In H3O, each bond has 33% coordinate covalent bond character and 66% covalent bond character.
3. Why the bond angles of H2O and NH3 are not 109.50 like that of CH4 although O and N-atoms are sp3- hybridized?
Like CH4, the molecules of H2O and NH3 are also AB4 type molecules. Carbon, oxide and nitrogen atoms undergo sp3-hybridization. CH4 is perfectly tetrahedral with the angle of 109.50. In case of ammonia, there are three bond pairs and one lone pair. Lone pair-bond pair repulsion is greater than bond pair- bond pair repulsion. Due to this reason, angle reduces to 107.50. In case Due to this increased repulsion of two lone pairs the angle further reduces to 104.50
4. π-bonds are more diffused than sigma bond. Justify it?
The sigma bond is formed by head to head overlap of two half-filled atomic orbitals. The electronic could density is symmetrical along the bond axis. The electronic could density of π-bond is not symmetrical along the bond axis. It consists of two regions, above and blew the bond axis. So π-bond is more diffused.
5. The abnormality of bond length and bond strength in Hl is less prominent than that of HCI. Give reasons?
Chlorine has higher electro negativity than iodine. So, the polarities of HCl and Hl bonds are unequal. Therefore, abnormality of bond length and bond strength of HCl is more prominent than Hl.
6. Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity, but when electric current is passed through molten sodium chloride or its aqueous solution, electrolysis takes place. Give reason?
In solid Nacl, the oppositely charged ions are fixed at their positions. So they do not conduct electricity in the solid state. In the molten state or solution state the ions are free to move towards the respective electrodes.
7. The melting points, boiling points, heat of vaporizations and heat of sublimation of electrovalen compounds are higher as compared to those of covalent compounds. Why?
Electrovalent or ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points due to the close packing of oppositely charged ions. The positively charged ions are surrounded by negatively charged ions and vice versa. That is why, they have very high melting points, boiling points, heat of vaporizations and heats of sublimation.
8. What is octet rule?
Some of the elements of the period table have a tendency to have eight electrons in their outmost shell during the formations of ionic, covalent or coordinate covalent bonds. This tendency is called octet rule and is obeyed by the elements of second and third period .
9. Most of the elements of the periodic table attain the electronic configuration of inert gases during bond formation. Justify it?
Inert gases are not reactive due to the complete octet except. He most of the s-and p-block elements may attain eight electrons in the outermost orbitals . They do so either by losing, gaining or sharing the electrons.
10. Why positively charged ions are mostly smaller in size than their natural atoms?
By the removal of electrons the cloud of outermost orbitals becomes thin. In this way, the remaining electrons are accommodated in smaller spaces. The nuclei have better attractive forces for them, and soothe sizes are decreases as compared to the netural atoms.
11. Greater the amount of positive charged on the ion, smaller the size the size of the ion. Why?
When we go on removing the electrons from outermost orbitals, the outermost electronic clouds become more and more thin. The rest of electrons can be accommodated in smaller volume. So, these electrons come near to the nucleus.
12. Why the atomic size decreases from left to the right in a period? Can they be measured precisely?
From left to right in a period, the nuclear charges increase and number of shells remain the same. Moreover, the shielding effect remains the same. So the atomic size decrease from the left to right is a period. They cannot be measured precisely because there is no sharp boundary of electronic cloud.
13. Why the atomic radii increase down the group?
The number of shells increase along with the increasing shielding effect down the group. These two effect are dominate in increasing the sizes. No doubt, the nuclear charges are increased, but this is not a dominate factor.
14. Cationic radius is smaller than the parent atom, while anionic radius is larger than parent atom. Why?
The radius of the positive ions becomes less, because the effective nuclear charge on the ion, smaller the radius. Similarly, the radius of negative ion or anion becomes more than neutral atom because increasing electron makes to the outermost shell to swell up.
15. Compare the radius of chloride ion with its parent atom. Give reasons?
Cl is bigger I the size Cl0, due to swelling of 3p subshell for its additional in Clo there are 5e in 3p orbital but for Cl there are 6ein 3p orbital.
16. Ionization energy of the elememt is the binding energy of the nucleus and the electron. Why is it measured when the atom is in the gaseous state?
The outermost electrons are attracted by the nucleus. If the atom is closer to some other atoms of its own kind or of different kinds, then the outermost electrons are being attracted are repelled by other species as well. In that situation, it is not possible to guess the forces of attractions within the nucleus and the outermost electron.
17. Why the ionization energies decrease down the group although the nuclear charges increase?
When we go down the group, the number of shells increase and shielding effects also increase. These two factors decrease the force of attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons and is a cause of decreasing ionization energy.
18. ionization energy is index to the metallic character. Why?
Metals have losely held electrons, which are delocalized and are responsible for the properties of metals. So, metals have low ionization energies.
19. Why the ionization energies of lll-a group elements are less as compared to ll-A, although the values should increase from left to the right in a period?
The ll-A group elements have outermost completely filled s-orbital. The electron removal is difficult and l.E values are higher than expectations. Elememts of lll-A group have outermost p-orbitals having one unpaired electron which is easier to remove.
20. Why second l.P. of an element is always greater than first l.P?
Second electron is removed from a positive ion and its inner level. It is difficult to do so, hence more energy is required to develop the second positive charged on an atom. Moreover, the positively charged ion is smaller in size and second electron removal is different.
21. Define electronagativity. How does it very in periodic Table?
The tendency of an atom to attract shared pair of electrons towards itself in bond is called electronegativity .Electronegitivity has no units. Electronegativity decreases from top to bottom in a group and increase from left to right in the periods. Fluorine has maximum value of electronegativity i.e., 4.0. It is on the top right of the periodic Table.
22. Why the electron affinities of ll-A ree less than those of l.A?
The elements of ii-A have fulfilled outermost s- orbitals, so electron has to be accommodated in the higher orbitals. Their electron affinities are positive. The elements of l-A can accommodated incoming electron in partially filled s-orbital.
23. Why the first electron affinity for most of the elements is positive?
Most of the elements of the periodic Table have the capacity to accommodated the electron in one of the outermost and evolve the energy. When the second electron is given to the uninegative ions, it is repelled by the negative ion and energy has to be provided. So, the second electron affinity of all the elements is positive.
24. An ionic bond is expected to be fomed between the elements of l-A and ll-A on one hand, while vl-A and vll-A on the other hand? Comment?
The ionic bond should be formed between those elements in which one of them has low l.E . value and other has high electron affinity value, The elements of the l-A ans ll-A have a low i.E. values. So, the bonds between them are expected to be ionic.
25. How do you justify that all the bonds l.A and ll-A with vl-A and vll-A are not equally ionic?
The i.E values of the l.A are less than ll.A . The E.A of vll-A are greater than vl-A. So, the bond between l.A and vll-A should be ionic to be good extent. Thebonds between ll.A and vl-A should be poorly ionic. It means that all the above mentioned compounds are not equally ionic.
26 How does the electronegativity difference decide the nature of ionic bond?
When the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms is 1-7 or more than that then the bond is said to be ionic, otherwise covalent. The % age of ionic character is more than 51 % when the electronegativity difference is 1.7. Bonds having electronegativity difference less, than 1.7. are called polar covalent bonds.
27. No bond is chemistry is 100 % ionic. Justify it?
The maximum difference of electro negativity between two bonded atoms is 3.2. i.e., for CsF. No bond in chemistry has ionic character more than 92 %. It means that no bond in chemistry is 100 % ionic.
28. Why sigma bond is stronger than pi-bond?
The electrons making the sigma are supposed to have their electron density very close to the joining line of two nuclei. So nuclei. So nuclei are tightly bond. Electrons of the pi-bond are above and blew the joining line. They are more diffused and so cannot hold the two unclei with a greater force. Anyhow, the double bond which is sigma and pi is stronger than a single sigma-bond.
29. Why NH3 and PH3 give coordinate covalent bonds with H+?
NH3 and PH3 have lone pairs of electrons, which can be donated to H+ to make a coordinate covalent bond. In this way, NH4+ and PH4+ are produced which have perfact equal status. Anyhow, one of the bonds is called co-ordinate covalent and three as covalent.
30. Why a coordinate covalent bond is produced between NH3 and BF3, but no such bad is produced between two similar atoms?
BF3 is neutral compound but it is electron deficient. The octet of B is not complete. It has six electrons in the outermost orbital of “B” in Bf3. It accepts the electron pair from: NH3 to complete its octet and the following compound is produced. Similar atoms cannot donate and accept electrons.
31. Why CO2 and CS2 have linear structure?
Carbon has four electrons in the outermost orbitals. It makes two sigma and two pi-bonds with two oxygen atoms. It means that it has two double bonds. Carbon has no lone pair in CO2. So CO2 is AB2 type molecule having the linear structure
O = C = O            S = C = S
Two dipoles cancel the effect of each other and it behaves as non-polar.
32. Why the lone pairs of electrons on an atom occupy greater space? Give example of NH3?
The lone of electrons of the central atom is only attracted by the nucleus of the central atom. It creates more forces of repuision due to neamess of nucleus and occupies greater space as compared to the bond pair. The lone pair on N-atom of NH3, pushes three bond pairs and the bond angle decreases up to 107.50
33. Why the repulsion between the electron pair around the central atom is in the following order? Give reason?
A lone pair is closer to the nucleus of the central atom as compared to the pair. So two lone pairs on the central atom are closely spaced as compared to a bond pair and a lone pair. Since the distance between two bonds pairs is greater, so the repulsion is minimum.
34. On the hybridization of the carbon atom, the promotion of the electrons require the energy but hybridized carbon atom is more stable than unhybridized state. Why?
This promotion of electron needs energy. Bur simultaneously hybridization of orbital takes place, which is energy releasing process. This hybridization process is more exothermic than endothermicity of process of electron atom with the promoted electron is more stable.
35. How the four sp3-hybridized orbital of carbon are directed in space, to give a tetrahedral structure?
The sp3 orbital are directed in space along the comers of a tetrahedron. They are so to have minimum repulsive forces. The structure has four corners, four forces, six edges and six angles.
36. Why the covalent bonds are directional? Give the structure of NH3.?
Covalent bonds are produced due to overlapping of orbital which have particular directions around the nucleus of atoms. They have bond angles. So, after making bonds they have definite directions. There are four electron pairs around N-atom. One of them is lone pair. It pushes bond pairs and pyramid of NH3 is developed.
37. Why is molecule of BF3 is triangular planar?
“B” has three electrons in the outermost orbital. It promotes the electron from 2s orbital to one of the 2p orbital. Boron undergoes sp2 hybridization. Three sp2-hybrized orbital lie in one plane and adjust themselves at angle of 1200 . Three F atom make three sigma bonds which lie in one plane. So, the molecule of BF3 is planar.
38. When two oxygen atoms approach each other, they produce two bonds but one of the bonds is sigma and the other is π-bond. Justify it?
Two electrons of oxygen in p-orbital are unpaired. These p-orbital are perpendicular to each other. The two p-orbital of two O-atom do the head –on overlapping to from a sigma bond. Other two p-orbital are parallel. These parallel p-orbital do the side away overlapping to from a π-bond.
39. Why the energy of the ABMO is greater than the BMO?
In BMO, the electron density is maximum on the joining line of two nuclii, so, the nucleus-nucleus repulsion is minimum and the system is stable. In ABMO, the electron density is not between the nuclei but on right and left of bonded atoms. In ABMO, the electronic clouds are on the right and left of two nuclei. In this way, the nucleus repulsion is three and the system is unstable.
40. In the molecule of N2, there are three bonds. One of them is sigma and the two are π. Justify it?
Nitrogen has three electrons unpaired. When two nitrogen atoms approach each other, then p-orbital do the head-on overlapping to from a sigma bond. Other two p-orbital on each nitrogen atom do the parallel p-overlapping to from π-bond.
41. What is sequence of molecular orbital in nitrogen molecule? Is it diamagnetic?
The spectroscopic techniques have verified the following arrangement of molecular orbital in the case of N2 molecule
Sigma (2s) Sigma (2s) < π(2py) = π(2pyz)< sigma (2px)< sigma (2py) = π (2px)<sigma(2px)
There are no unpaired electron it is diamagnetic.
42. Throw light on the term bond order?
This term is related with the bond formation according to molecular orbital theory. It is the difference of the electron pairs in bonding molecular orbital and anti-bonding molecular orbitals. The bond order of He is zero, of hydrogen is one, of oxygen is two and nitrogen is three.
43. How MOT justifies that He atoms cannot make the He2? Hellum is diamagnetic in nature, Justify?
When two He atoms approach each other, they give two molecular orbital i.e. Sigma is and  Sigmals. Two electrons go to sigmals  . In this way the  number of bonding electrons is equal to the number of antibonding electrons. The bond order becomes zero. Hence He2  does not exist.
44. Why MOT is superior to VBT?
Molecular orbital theory tells us the reason for no bond between noble gases. It also tells us the number of bonf whether sigma or pi and O2. Moreover, it tells about the paramagnetic and diagnetic nature of substance, but V.B.T. does not gives such answers.
45. Why the bond energies of the multiple bonds are greater than those of single bonds?
The four electrons in a double bond can tight the nuclei in a better way, then two electrons single bond . In the case of triple bonds, six electrons are joining the two nuclei, so the bond is even stronger than the double.
46. Why the actual bonds dissociation energy of HCI ,molecule is greater than theoretical bond dissociation energy?
HCI is not 100% covalent. The molecule of HCI is partially ionic. Additional forces of attraction are created in H and Cl. These additional forces make the bond stronger.
47. The dipole moment is the property of those molecules in which there is a polarity. Justify it?
Dipole moment is the product of the internuclear distance and the charged on any one of the poles, µ = d*e. The poles are only created. When there is a difference of electronegativity . If the molecule is non-polar, then there is no dipole moment.
48. Dipole moment of CO2 is zero but that of Co is 0.12Debye. Why?
CO2 is a linear molecule and the two dipoles cancel the effect each other. In CO there is a single dipole directed from carbon to oxygen and it is not cancelled.
49. The dipole moments of BF3, CO2 and CS2 are zero and that of H2O is 1.85 D and SO2 is 1.61 D. Why?
The oxygen atom is water is sp3– hybridized. Two lone pairs at the corners of a tetrahedron repel two bond pairs and bond angle becomes 104.50. So it is an angular molecule and shows dipole moment. SO2 is also angular. In CO2 and CS2 carbon is sp-hybridized and two sp-hybridized orbital are at 1800. The structures are linear and two dipoles cancel the effect of each other. In BF3 is sp2 and molecule is triangular symmetrical.
50. Define dipole moment and gives its units?
It is the product of bond distance and charge on anyone of the poles.

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