11th Class Biology Chapter 11 Bioenergetics Short Questions Answer

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11th Class Biology Chapter 11 Bioenergetics Short Questions Answer

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1. What is compensation point?
At dawn and dusk when light intensity is low, the rate of photosynthesis and respiration may, for a short time, equal one another. Thus the oxygen released from photosynthesis is just the amount required for cellular respiration. Also, the carbon dioxide released by respiration just equals the quantity required by photosynthesizing cells. At this moment there no net gas exchange between the leaves and the atmosphere. This is termed as Compensation Point.
2. Why light and dark reactions have been given these names?
Light reaction has been given this name as it can only continue in the presence of light. While dark reaction is so called as it is not dependent on lights and can take place both in light and dark.
3. What is Z-scheme?
The path of electrons through the two photosystems during non-cyclic phosphorylation is known as Z- scheme from its shape.
4. What is Calvin cycle?
The cyclic series if reactions, catalyzed by respective enzymes, by which the carbon is fixed and reduced resulting in the synthesis of sugar during the dark reactions of photosynthesis is called Calvin cycle.
5. What is external respiration?
The exchange of respiratory gases i.e. CO2 and O2 between the organism and its environment is called external respiration.
6. Why mitochondria are called power houses?
Mitochondria play a part in cellular respiration by transferring the energy of the organic molecules to the chemical bounds of ATP. A large ‘battery’ of enzymes and coenzymes slowly release energy from the glucose molecules. Thus mitochondria are the ‘power houses’ that produce energy necessary for many cellular functions.
7. Who obtained the first action spectrum and when?
The first action spectrum was obtained by German biologist T.W. Engelmann in 1883. He worked on Spirogyra.
8. Differentiate between cyclic and non-cyclic phosorylation?
Formation of ATP during non-cyclic electron flow is called non- cyclic phosphorylation while that during cyclic electron flow is called cyclic phosphorylation.
9. Does pyruvic acid enter into mitochondria directly?
Pyruvic acid (pyruvate), the end project of glycolysis, does not enter the Krebs cycle directly. The pyruvate (3-carbon molecule) is first changed into 2-carbon acetic acid molecule. One carbon is released as CO2 (de- carboxylation). Acetic acid then others the mitochondrion.
10. What are cytochromes?
Cytochromes are electron transport intermediate containing haeme of related prosthetic groups that undergo valency changes of iron atom.
11. What is spectrophotometer?
Spectrophotometer is an instrument which is used to measure relative abilities of different pigments to absorb different wavelength of light.
12. Define photosynthesis ?
Photosynthesis can be defined as the process in which energy-poor inorganic (i.e. CO2) and hydrogen (i.e. mainly water) are reduced to energy-rich carbohydrate (i.e. sugers-gloucose) using the light. Energy that is absorbed and converted into chemical energy by chlorophyll and some other photosynthetic pigments.Chlorophyll
6CO2+12H2O+ Light → C6 H12 O6+6O2+6H2O
(carbon dioxide) (water)                                      (glucose)(Oxygen)(water)
13. What is the difference between an action spectrum and an absorption spectrum?
A graph plotting absorption of light of different wave length by a pigment is called absorption spectrum of the pigment. While plot showing relative effectiveness of different wavelengths (colors) of light in arriving photosynthesis is called action spectrum of photosynthesis.
14. What are accessory pigments? Also give their role in light absorption?
Carotenoids and chlorophyll b are called accessory pigments because they absorb light and transfer the energy to chlorophyll a which then initiates the light reactions. It is generally believed that the order of transfer of energy is: Carotenoids → chlorophyll b → Chlorophyll a Some carotenoids protect chlorophyll from intense light by absorbing and dissipating excessive light energy, rather than transmitting energy to chlorophyll.
15. What are carotenoids?
Carotenoids are yellow and red to orange pigments that absorb strongly the blue-violet wavelength of light, which is different wave lengths than the chlorophyll absorbs. So they broaden the spectrum of light that provides energy for photosynthesis.
16. What is the net production of ATP during glycolysis?
10 ATP are produced but 2 ATP are used in the beginning so there is a net gain of 8 ATP molecules.
17. What is the main difference between photophosphyorylation and oxidative phosphorylation?
Synthesis of ATP in the presence of light is called photophosphorylation while synthesis of ATP in the presence of oxygen is called oxidative phosphorylataion.
18. What is the location of ETC and chemiosmosis in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
Thylakiod membranes in photosynthesis, and mitochondrial membranes is cellular respiration.
19. How did the evolution of photosynthesis affect the metabolic pathway?
With the emergence of photosynthesis on earth, molecular oxygen began to accumulate slowly in the atmosphere. The presence of free oxygen made possible the evolution of respiration. Respiration released great deal of energy, and some of this energy is used in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. ATP is a kind of chemical link between catabolism and anabolism.
20. Why does absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a differ from that of chlorophyll b?
The molecular formulae for chlorophyll and b are :
Chlorophyll a C55H72O5N4Mg
Chlorophyll b C55H70O6N4 Mg
Due to this slight difference in their structure, the two chlorophyll’s show  slightly different absorption spectra and hence different colours.
21. How does absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a differ from that of chlorophyll b?
Some wave lengths not absorbed by chlorophyll a are very effectively absorbed by chlorophyll b and vice-versa. Such difference in structure of different pigments increase the rang of wave length of the slight absorbed. Chlorophyll a is blue-green while chlorophyll b is yellow-green.
22. Why are the carotenoids usually not obvious in the leaves? They can be seen in the leaves before leaf fall. Why?
The carotenoids are usually not obvious in the leaves as their yellowish color is covered by dark green color of chlorophyll. But just before leaf fall, the chlorophyll is destroyed and carotenoids can be seen.
23. How is the formation of vitamin A linked with eating of carrot?
Carrots contain carotenoids which are the precursors of vitamin A. This is why the formation of vitamin A is linked with eating of carrot.
24. Explain the roles of the following in aerobic respiration: (a) NAD and FAD (b) oxygen?
NAD and FAD are the coenzymes which help enzymes to carry out the reactions during aerobic respiration, whereas oxygen accepts the He atoms and make water in the last step of respiratory chain.
25. Sum to how much energy (as ATP) is made available to the cell from a single glues molecule by the operation of glycolysis , the formation of acetyl CoA the critic acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
For each glucose molecule that is completely broken down to CO2 and H2O molecules by the sequential actions of glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and respiratory electron transport, 38 ATP molecules can be formed . 2 ATP molecules are obtained during glycolysis, 2 durings Krebs cycle and 34 during respiratory chain.
26. Trace the fat of hydrogen atoms removed from glucose during glycolysis when oxygen is present in muscle cells, compare this to the fat of hydrogen atoms removed from glucose when the amount of the available oxygen is insufficient to support aerobic respiration?
When oxygen is present in muscles cell, the hydrogen atoms removed from glucose during glycolysis are carried to respiratory chain but in the absence of oxygen they are used in alcoholic or lactic acid fermentation .
27. What are bioenergetics ?
Bioenergetics is the quantitative study of energy relationship and conservation in biological system.
28. How energy stored in carbohydrates is released?
Glycolysis and respiration are the processes whereby the energy stored in carbohydrates is released in a controlled manner.
29. What are the major sites of photosynthesis?
The leaves are the major sits of photosynthesis in most plants.
30. What is stroma?
Stroma is the dense fluid filled region enclosed in a double membrane envelop of chloroplast.
31. What are thylakoids?
Thylakoids are the membranes suspend in stroma and form an elaborate interconnected set of flat, disc like sacs.
32. What are grana?
Thylakiods sacs are stacked in columns called grana.
33. What are bacteriochlorophylls?
Bacteriochlorophylls are photosynthesis pigment that occur in various phototrophic bacteria. They are related to chlorophylls, which are the primary pigments plants, algae, and cyanobacteria . Groups that contain bacteriochlorophyll conduct photosynthesis , but do not produce oxygen. Different groups contain, different types of bacteriochlorophyll:
34. Which wave-length are absorbed/transmitted/reflected by chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll absorbs mainly violet-blue and orange-red wave lengths. Green and yellow wave lengths are least absorbed by chlorophylls and are the transmitted or reflected, although the yellows are often masked by darker green color.
35. Why do plants appear green?
Green and yellow wave length are transmitted or reflected, although the yellows are often masked by darker green color. Hence plants appear green, unless masked by other pigments.
36. What Is prophyrin ring?
The prophyrin ring is hydrophilic head of chlorophyll molecule which is made up of 4 joined pyrrole rings composed of carbon and nitrogen atoms. An atom of magnesium is present in the centre of prophyrin ring and is coordinated with the nitrogen of each pyrrole ring.
37. Why does magnesium deficiency cause yellowing in plants?
An atom of magnesium is present in the center of prophyrin ring of the chlorophyll that is why magnesium deficiently causes yellowing in plants.
38. What is phytol?
It is long hydrocarbon tail which is attached to one of the pyrrole rings.
39. What do you know about the solubility of the chlorophyll molecule?
Chlorophylls are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as acetone, alcohol and carbon tetrachloride.
40. What are light and photons?
Light is a form of energy is called electromagnetic energy or radiations. Light behaves as waves as well as sort of particles.
41. What radiations are most important to life?
The radiations most important to life are the visible light that ranges from about 380 to 750 nm in wave length.
42. Does all the right falling on the leaves is absorbed?
Not all the light falling on the leaves is absorbed. Only about one percent of the light falling on the leaf surface is absorbed, the rest is reflected or transmitted.
43. What is the percentage of photosynthesis carried out by terrestrial as well as aquatic organisms?
About 10 percent of total photosynthesis is carried out by terrestrial plants, the rest occurs in oceans, lakes and ponds by algae.
44. What is the concentration of CO2 in air?
Air contains  about 0.03-0.04 percent of CO2.
45. How much leaf surface is covered by stomata?
Stomata cover only 1-2 percent of the leaf surface.
46. How many parts the reactions of photosynthesis consist of?
The reactions of photosynthesis cocsist of twp parts, i) The light-dependent reactions (light reaction) which use light directly. ii) The light independent reaction (dark rection) which do not use light directly.
47. What are photosystems?
Photosynthetic pigments are organized into clusters, called photosystems. Each photosystem consists of a light-gathering antenna complex and a ‘reaction center’.
48. What antenna complex and reaction center have?
The antenna complex has many molecules of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, most of them channeling the energy to reaction center. Reaction center has one or more molecules of chlorophyll a along with a primary electron acceptor, and associated electron carries of electron transport system.
49. What is photolysis?
The water splitting step of photosynthesis that release oxygen is called photolysis.
50. What wave-lengths of light are absorbed by photosystem I & ii?
Photosystem I has chlorophyll a molecule which absorbs maximum light of 700 nm and is called P700where as reaction center of photosystems ii has P680 the form of chlorophyll a which absorbs best the light of 680nm.

What is thylakoid?

In photosynthetic organisms, chloroplasts have vesicles a wall of which bears photosynthetic pigments, called thylakoid. They vary in form and arrangement in different groups of organisms.

What is the functions of stomata?

Stomata are pores present in the epidermis of plants in large numbers, particularly in leaves, through which gaseous exchange takes place.

Define bioenergetics?

The study of energy transfer in living beings is called bioenergetics.

Give approximate estimate of chloroplasts in a green leaf?

The number of chloroplasts is about half a million per square millimeter of the leaf surface.

What does the absorption spectrum of a pigment mean?

A graph showing the absorption of light of different wavelength by a pigment is called its absorption spectrum.

How does light affect opening and closing of stomata?

The stomata open in light and close in darkness.

Where does Krebs cycle take place in the cell?

The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria of the cell.

What is the net production of ATP during glycolysis?

The net production of ATP during glycolysis is two molecules of ATP.

What is FAD abbreviation for?

Fad is abbreviation for flavin adenine dinucleotide.

Name two solvents of chlorophll?

The solvents of chlorophyll are carbon tetrachloride and alcohol.

Write down the first step in Krebs cycle?

The first step in the Krebs cycle is the union of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate to form citrate.

Give definition of glycolysis?

Glycolysis is the conversion of glucose by means of enzymes and co-enzymes till the formation of pyruvic acid.

What does a photo system of photosynthesis cell consists of?

A photo system consists of a light gathering antenna complex and a reaction center.

How much of the total photosynthesis take place in water and on land?

Of the total photo synthesis 90% takes place in water and 10% on land.

What is the source of energy used on earth?

Almost all the energy used on earth comes directly from the sun.

What are the end products of light reactions?

These are ATP and NADPH.

What are the different kinds of chlorophyll and where are these found?

Chlorophyll a,b,c and d are found in eukaryotic photosynthetic plants and algae while the other found in photosynthetic bacteria are known as bacteria chlorophylls.

What is the approximate number of chloroplasts in each mesophyll cell of the leaf?

It is about 20 to 1000 per mesophyll cell.

Which wavelength of the light spectrum are least absorbed by the chlorophyll?

Green and yellow wavelength are least absorbed by the chlorophylls.

Define grana?

In chloroplasts group of disc-shaped, flattened vesicles stacked like coins in a pile, vesicle membranes bearing photosynthetic pigments are called grana. They are most highly developed in chloroplasts of higher plants.

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