Discover the captivating realm of fungi with our 11th Class Biology Chapter 8 Fungi Short Question Answers. Specifically crafted for students venturing into the intriguing world of fungi, this resource provides concise yet comprehensive insights. Explore a carefully selected compilation of short questions and their corresponding answers, aimed at enhancing your understanding of fungal biology. Whether you are preparing for exams or seeking to develop a deeper appreciation for biodiversity, these succinct responses serve as a reliable guide to unravel the complexities of Chapter 8. Unveil the enigmatic wonders of fungi and strengthen your grasp on biology with this invaluable resource, ensuring an engaging and effective learning experience.
11th Class Biology Chapter 8 Fungi Short Question Answers Below
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Hypha:Mycelium consists of long, branched, tubular, thread like filaments called the hypha (Singular Hypha). Hypha spread extensively over the surface of substratum. Their walls are composed of chitin, so their wall is highly resistant to decay. Hyphae may be septate or non-septate
Advantage if having incomplete septa: Cytoplasm flows from cell to cell, carrying the materials to growing tips and enabling the hyphae to grow rapidly when food and water are abundant and temperature is favorable.
Fungal cell walls are composed of chitin, so their wall is more resistant to decay than are cellulose and lignin which make up plant cell wall.
Yeasts are unicellular microscopic fungi, derived from all the three different groups of fungi but mostly Ascomycetes, and reproducing mostly, asexually by budding However, yeasts reproduce sexually by forming asci/ascospores or basidia/basidiopores. They ferment carbohydrate (glucose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide. They are non-hyphal.
Sexual spores are ascospores while asexual spores are conidia.
Mycorrhizae are mutualistic association between certain fungi and roots of vascular plants (about 95% of all kinds of vascular plants). The fungal hyphae dramatically increase the amount of soil contact and total surface area for absorption and help in the direct absorption of phosphorus, zinc, copper and other nutrients from the soil into the roots. Such plants show better growth than those without this association. The plant, supplies organic carbon to fungal hyphae.
Yeasts are different from other fungi as they are unicellular.
Sexual spores are called ascospores borne in asci while asexual spores are called conidia in Ascomycota.
(i) Endomycorrhizae: In which fungal hyphae penetrate the outer cell of the plant root, forming coils, swellings and minute branches, and also extend out into surrounding soil.
(ii) Ectomycorrhizae: In which the hyphae surround and extend between the cells but do not penetrate the cell wall of the roots. These are found in pines, firs etc.
Fungi can tolerate temperature extremes 5-6 C below freezing and hence are more likely to contaminate an orange kept in a refrigerator than the bacteria.
- Most fungi are decomposers i.e., obtain food from dead organisms. e.g., Yeast, Agaricus.
- Some fungi are parasites i.e., obtain food from living host. e.g., rust and smut.
- Some are predators e.g. Arthrobotrys
The fusion of nuclie in different mycelia is called karyogamy.
Yeasts are unicellular microscopic fungi which are non-hyphal in structure.
The exchange of portion of chromosomes of two nuclei lying in the same hyphae.
The fungal hyphae of mycorrhizae increase the amount of soil contact and total surface area for absorption and help in direct absorption of minerals and nutrients from the soil.
- Powdery mildews
- Potato will
- Oral and vaginal thrush
Some fungal enzymes are used in fermentation and brewing industry but digesting enzymes of some saprotrophic fungi spoil our food, plastic, paper and textile.
It is a fungal disease of plants. As its color is brown like that of iron, so it is called as rust.
Fungal cells having two nuclei of different genetic make-up are called dikaryotic while having two sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell or hypha is called diploid condition.
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